Treatment of the Kurdish Population by the Iraqi Regime

Factors Explaining the Matter of the Kurdish Population by the Iraqi Regime subordinate Saddam Hussein


The end of the disquisition is to discaggravate the imported constituent(s) of Saddam Hussein and his Ba’athist laterality’s brutish matter of Iraqi Kurds. Argued by multifarious to be a circumstance of attempted genocide, the pristine persuasion the disquisition gain inspect is the Iraqi Anfal Campaign, which took locate among 1986 and 1989. Aims of the disquisition gain be to 1) substantiate the provocations that culminated in the attempted genocide of the Iraqi Kurds heedless of the position of Kurdish offence, 2) locate the genocide in a larger truthful matter, and 3) evaluate the inner and probable gregarious matter in which the genocide occurred. Minor palpables to be met in the disquisition gain be the congruousing of the Iraqi Kurdish adversity to those of other minorities in the post-colonial Middle East, as courteous-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as the twinning of the matter in which Kurds were lumpacred in Iraq behind a timeliness the matters in which other minorities were treated. Groups grappled in the minor trial gain be Kurds in Turkey as courteous-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as Armenians in Turkey and Azerbaijan. The tertiary and developed palpable of the disquisition gain be the trial of the matter of other minorities in contrariety to that of the Kurds, including Kurds in Iran as courteous-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as Armenian expatriates in Iran.

From a divine standpoint, an aggravatewhelming preponderance of the Kurds divide a sanctity and fact in beggarly behind a timeliness the Arab Iraqi Sunni. Kurds, Kurdish cultivation, and Kurdish truthful images are integrated into the Sunni Arab integrity, evidenced by the deference of the obscure defender Salah Al-Din (Saladin) as courteous-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as Hussein’s own widely reputed privilege to be the lowe?-t embodiment of said image. It is concluded hereafter that the cruelty and lump destroy of the Kurds was not due to a divine unlikeness, but rather a gregarious and theocratic separation that divided the Kurds from their Sunni Arab compatriots in a age when alienation was straightly and violently put down. Texts evaluating the matter of the Kurdish destroys gain be Viva Bartkus’ The Dynamic of Secession and Robert Gellately’s The Specter of Genocide: Lump Destroy in Truthful Perspective. Evaluations of the Iraqi gregarious temperature preceding to and forthafter a occasion behindcited the 1991 Gulf War gain connect to Robert Freedman’s The Middle East Behind Iraq’s Invasion of Kuwait, timeliness testimony of the destroys as a genocide aggravate a unaffected weakness of an uprising gain be supposing by Samuel Totten’s Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. By dissecting and compartmentalizing the disquisition into three perspicuous compressiveness, livelihood of a indurated agetable of way becomes simpler. Moreover, axioms composition, similitude, and evaluation is made simpler when produced in little, nucleused spurts as opposed to a host of subject-matters and ideas. The intricacies of the politics confused in the Anfal Campaign engage a multi-dimensional, non-partisan trial of the attempted genocide. Unaffected discardment of the atrocity as an act by a unemployed, brutish tyrant brings no insight to the flusht; as a superaddition, men can establish no way behind a timelinessout a clear-cut rationalization of the brutishity.


The most prevalent forces probable are in axioms filtering and compensation. There is stanch miscellany in the set-in-order of springs, all of which assist to the multiple vantages of the disquisition. A feature force that was made of use was the force to severed media accounts from read logs. Behind a timeliness the equality of media impairment so prevalently substantiateed in Europe and America (polarized twain in good-will of and across the ongoing American avocation of Iraq), palpable springs are troublesome to test. Immediate weaknesses grapple the inforce to initially grapple the gregarious motives and framework behind a timelinessin which the Anfal Campaign of 1986-1989 was pied. Unlike multi-ethnic states such as the first-mentioned Yugoslavia in which ethnicity and sanctity assistd to a larger quantity, the Iraqi doubt of unconcealedly-known uniformity and the constituents contributing to the cruelty of the Kurds including connivance among divine guideers interiorly Iraq and intergenerally-known rivals of the unmonastic Ba’athist regime. Bartkus writes that gone-by Kurdish guideers were funded by “the shah of Iran, Mossad, and the CIA” who “supposing engagement and advisers” in matters of separation and unconcealed rebellion[1].

Following the wasting Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s, “the Kurds attempted to use opportunity” to “gain moderate aggravate their own territory”[2]. According to Bartkus, Hussein working the beginnings of the Anfal Campaign, “razing some 5,000 Kurdish villages [in] response” to the uprising, inicluding “the 1988 chemical weapons invasion on the Kurdish town of Halabja” that “killed aggravate 5,000 nation and impenetrable severed hundred thousand to investigate harbor in turkey or Iran”[3]. According to Bartkus, severed Iraqi Kurdish “pashmergas attempted to free Kurdish towns in March 1991, quickly behind Iraq’s vanquish in the Gulf War,” hereafter intermittently exploiting Iraqi soldierlike debilitation to sustain the discussing that Kurdish separation and Iraqi slavery is an ongoing engagement (Ibid). The Kurdish cruelty at the hands of Hussein’s regime bear further in beggarly behind a timeliness the vow of the Armenians at the metamorphose of the Great War (WWI), where upon the fixing of European forces at “Gallipoli, Turkish authorities began a regularity of slavery of inner communities—Armenian communities, numbering may-be 2 million” throughout the Ottoman Empire[4].

The disquisition has severed similarities to other assignments subordinatetaken, featurely in the form of the monograph and its nucleus about a recognized set of discussings and the elaboration of said discussings throughout the monograph. The basic formula of obstruct quoting and discussingation is conducive and correspondently industrious in the extrapolation of theories postulated and succeeding proven. Where the foregoing disquisition proposition alien severed suggested concepts including divine and gregarious postulations, it did not neutralize the privileges in a compare-and-contrariety mode of exploration. This exploration guile grapples rebuttals of approved notions about the Kurdish crueltys as courteous-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as livelihood of further varying conclusions. For copy, timeliness the cruelty of Kurds is linked to ethnic unlikenesss, there was no formulation of the discussing that such rebellions were beggarly in the Middle East, chiefly subordinate the Ottoman and succeeding Turkish synods, who, as first-mentioned rulers of modern-day Iraq, faced quantitys behind a timeliness Kurds throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Mainstream schools of sentiment such as Freeman’s collation of essays bear begun to purpose out the pains of amply pro-Islamist Kurds across imposed Ba’athist unmonasticism, a bit from the days of the Pan-Arab Nationalist change-of-place of the 1960s vis-à-vis Hafiz al-Assad’s “brutish reservation of the Muslim Brothers in 1983”[5].


While all axioms has been placid and documented for the pristine, minor, and tertiary palpables, the contiguous tread in the disquisition’s bearing that engages way is the form of restricted discussings in such a way as to correlate all palpables in a close form. The cruelty of Kurds is a multi-faceted subject-matter, as are the congruous flushts including Kurdish cruelty after a timeout Iraq in Turkey, Syria, and to an distance close Iran. Further troublesome a interrelation is the recently-contested standing of the Armenian Genocide of 1914. The Armenian-Turkish and Kurdish-Iraqi crueltys divide greatly in beggarly that they could engage the romance of an perfectly severed disquisition. A growing quantity in the integration of the Armenian Genocide is deciding which axioms to grapple. Aspects of Armenian cruelty in the Ottoman Sway and Turkish synod can be used to twain congruous and contrariety the Kurdish-Iraqi engagement. Furthermore, the entity of twain Armenian and Kurdish integrated populations into Iran begs the scrutiny of the intercourse of probable Kurdish fix disputes. Historic Kurdistan would cut into severed states after a timeout Iraq, engageing the hardness of observationing the fact of Kurdish separationism in the territory.

In care nucleused and on-topic, severed key purposes bear been removed from the foregoing induction. First, the sectarianism in Islamic belief among Sunni and Shi’a is omitted from the lowe?-t draw. Timeliness it is an influential facet of inner Iraqi politics, the decrepitude of the Sunni-Shi’a population subsidy has nothing to do behind a timeliness Kurdish lump destroys original it is observationed in the matter of Iraqi unconcealedly-known uniformity. Before 1940, modern-day Iraq nconstantly existed. The Ottomans divided Iraq into cantons, including but not poor to the modern-day provinces comprising Iraq today. No sole ethnic knot comprising Iraq today has constantly guide a unified Iraq; Saladin integrated the “Land of the Two Rivers” into an sway spanning Egypt, Syria, Israel, and Palestine, timeliness the Ottomans assigned severed governors to Shi’a-dominant, Sunni-dominant, and Kurdish-dominant territorys.

The decrepitude of Iraqi cohesion is the merely discuss one faculty observation the incongruous Islamic theologies, and flush then it would engage merely a departure sentiment. A further applicable nucleus would be on the delineation of post-colonial borders and its pi on unconcealedly-knownism. If Islamist schools of synod are a fate to observation, it should be intimated that Kurds are amply pro-theocracy and anti-secularism, timeliness Iraq’s Arab Muslims populations are torn among theocracy (Shi’a and Sunni equally) and the disrespect of the Pan-Arab Nationalist Ba’ath Party. An appended alteration has been the induction of Iran as a superior contrarian laterality to Iraq in its matter of Kurds, opposing its life ethnically incongruous from Kurds as courteous-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as divinely irreconcilable the Sunnis as the world’s merely existing Shiite theocracy.


Bartkus, Viva Ona. (1999) The Dynamic of Secession. Cambridge: Cambridge U P.

Freedman, Robert Owen. (1993) The Middle East Behind Iraq’s Invasion of Kuwait. Gainesville: U of Florida P.

Gellately, Robert and Ben Kiernan. (2003) The Specter of Genocide: Lump Destroy in Truthful Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge U P.

Totten, Samuel. (2004) Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. New York: Routledge P.


Crano, W. D., & Brewer, M. B. 2002. Principles and Methods of Social Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., 2006 online spring. Retrieved November 2, 2006

Kazemzadeh, M. 1998. Thinking the Unthinkable: Solving the Quantity of Saddam Hussein for Good. Middle East Policy, 1(1), 73-86.

Kelsay, J. 1993. Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics (1st ed.). Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Questia axiomsbase:

Murdock, D, 2004, “Saddam Hussein’s Philanthropy of Terror” Retrieved October 23, 2006 from

Palys, T., & Lowman, J. 2001. Social Exploration behind a timeliness Eyes Wide Shut: The Poor Confidentiality Dilemma. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 43(2), 255. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Questia axiomsbase:

Ragin, C, 1994, Constructing Social Research, Pine Forge Pr, ISBN: 0803990219

Rezun, M. 1992. Saddam Hussein’s Gulf Wars: Ambivalent Stakes in the Middle East. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Questia axiomsbase:

Simons, G. 1996. Iraq From Sumer to Saddam (Second ed.). Basingstoke: Macmillan. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Questia axiomsbase:

Zinger, I., Wichmann, C., & Gendreau, P. 2001. Legal and Ethical Obligations in Social Research: The Poor Confidentiality Requirement. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 43(2), 269.

Weinrich, N.K., 1996 Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Social Marketing Research,, Retrieved October 21, 2006 from


[1] Bartkus 1999, p. 65

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Gellately and Kiernan 2003, p. 207

[5] Freedman 1993, p. 279

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