The Bottom Of The Pyramid

The Groundwork of the Pyramid hypothesis is one of the broadly acclaimed theories of Marketing schemeed by C. K. Prahalad through his work The Fortune at the Groundwork of The Pyramid. The pyramid is India. The top of the pyramid consists of niche communicate, enlightened masses in the average of the pyramid and the enlightenedst segregate of the Indian population i.e. subordinatenourished and quite ignored at the groundwork of the pyramid (BoP). For the countries which are collocateed subordinate “developing empire”, the bigness of the groundwork of the pyramid is monstrous and in circumstance of plain countries, the authentic harass is that the bigness of the top of the pyramid i.e. niche communicate is authenticly amplifying. Now in India, tnear are two pyramids, one that is big and one that is insignificant labeled “Rural” and “Urban” respectively. Now each of these pyramids can be again subdivided into 3 separates- top, average and groundwork. Hence we can see that groundwork of the pyramid population exists twain in grassy as well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved as varnished areas.

Before BoP emerged, all the companies would contriveulate their strategies and results according to the top separate of the Pyramid. Marketing at the BoP are yet to be explored and the MNCs scarcity to set-on-foot targeting the inferior sufferance customers to prepare results and services according to their scarcitys. By doing so, these companies can opinion their CSR (urbane collective obligation) and in the regularity of doing so, they procure aid extirpate want by decorous the prop conditions of the impecunious unity that involve the BoP. The BoP in India is emerging as multi- trillion dollar employment opportunities for the companies who are struggling to amplify their employment in the late saturated communicates. This pretexts that the impecuniousest communicates in India can be sufferance generating for companies if their communicateing strategies and results are made according to these communicates. The companies scarcity to opine this separate of the pyramid and then usage their strategies, results and services consistently. Why hasn’t the employment globe already captured practice of this mold anteriorly? The apology is simple- pravity, impecunious infrastructure, no arrangement documents, illiteracy, closing of enforcetalented legitimate framework, racial conflicts, etc.

“At confer-upon, BOP expendrs expend 42 percent of their sufferance on foundation and beverage, tobacco, comportment and housing. However, by 2025, the expending on foundation, beverage and tobacco is estimated to discard to 25 percent as superfluous sufferance augmentations. Meanwhile, expending on comportment, sanitycare, peculiar results and services, amusement and advice are slight to augmentation steadily. The changing expending example has warranted a exexchange in communicateing strategies to unlock the generous germinative of the Indian communicate.” [1] 

Selling to the groundwork of the pyramid is a sandbox of novelty. But you bear to bear a thoroughgoinggoing subordinatestanding of the communicate. It is not great to vend the results and services cheaper but the companies bear to end up delay results and services that confront the scarcity of BoP. And if today’s companies don’t end up delay these innovative results and services then someone else procure.


The Journal of Management & Public Policy(2012) , a examination titled “A Accurate Appropinquation in Conception Groundwork of the Pyramid Propositions” by Mrinmoy Majumder talks encircling a very great upshot that we scarcity to opine period planning innovative communicateing strategies for the BoP- Are the impecunious unity unquiet encircling the result/service that they use? The examination conducted for harvest using the framework of BOP, has argued that impecunious unity are well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved assured of the results and services they use. Balance the globe, impecunious unity are supposedly infamy cognizant. The key erudition for any fortifying is to use the homogeneous recognition at the kernel of their employment regularity and not to endow in gimmick offspring enjoy civice collective obligation. On the repugnant, fortifying can breed accomplished mendment through vending results and services at the inferior end of the pyramid. Impecunious unity are not to be seen as victims but should be looked as flexible, innovators and prize-driven expendrs.

The communicate dynamics are changing secure. New communicates are emerging fast and are befitting enticing destinations for communicateers. These communicates public up a gateway of possibilities for empiricism and opportunities to instigate afar from the engageing. The authentic communicate assurance in the advenient is expected to end not from the plain communicates and the varnished communicate separates but from the subordinateprivileged separates and the precedency IV communicates balance the globe which, though enlightenedly untapped dress now, bear the germinative of exhibiting a sinewy admonish of amplifyth if supplyed to truly. “Managers who rendezvous on indelicate margins procure ignore the mold at the groundwork of the pyramid; managers who innovate and rendezvous on economic mendment procure be rewarded” (Prahlad and Hart, 2002).

However, supplying to these shorter tapped communicates, including the grassy communicates, calls for a original restructuring of the employment regularity and cast-outing communicateing appropinquationes to acceleration the demographics and psychographics of the newly discovered communicates. Period the MNCs tower to capture a sinewy communicate separate in emerging communicates, their communicateing strategies are ill habitous to supply to the expendrs in the communicate. “The conclusion is low communicate observation, disappointing communicate divides and impecunious mendmentability.” Thus, an cogent observation into the emerging communicates calls for a rethinking of the communicateing programs directed at these communicates (Davar and Chattopadhyay, 2002). Such a scarcity quickly sharp-ends to the essentiality of novelty in employment schemes, employment regularityes and communicateing programs. Innovations targeted at the groundwork of the pyramid communicates are short encircling discovering the new ‘Who’s’ and fur further encircling discovering a new prize statement (a new What) and a new prize network (a new How) (Anderson and Markides, 2006).

As in the groundwork of the pyramid communicate, an cogent observation into the grassy communicate too requires a scrupulous use of novelty. Novelty must be used in such a way so as to shun inirrelative inclusion or inirrelative disqualification. In apsharp-end to cogently survive in the grassy communicate and to adduce encircling a sustaintalented amplifyth, it is great that the neglected grassy lots are not narrowly treated as expendrs but as fortifyed resultrs (Jaiswal, 2008). Thus, sustaintalented amplifyth in the newly discovered grassy communicates requires the use of novelty not simply to penetadmonish into these communicates as venders but too to determine a concomitant exploitation of the resources in these separates, cast-out employment statements environing these resources and vend the conclusionant result in the other communicates. Such use of novelty to adduce encircling a balanced amplifyth in the grassy communicates and cast-out these communicates twain as resultrs and expendrs would too determine road for the practicing companies. Some entrepreneurs from these subordinateprivileged communicates bear set-on-footed evolving and tender towards the interpolitical communicates riding on some nature of novelty. Studies pretext that entrepreneurs from emerging economies are increasingly using novelty to augment their customer acceleration capabilities delay the aim of efficiently serving their great interpolitical customers and cognizant the global communicates in an cogent way (Khavul et al., 2010).

In the 1970s, the true communicateing activities of Hindustan Unilever (HUL) in India tended to rendezvous on the varnished average collocate and galaxy. Meanwhile, an Indian entrepreneur resultd and communicateed a detergent, Nirma, targeting the inferior expendr separates sector and the infamy molded to be the remedy enlightenedst body vender in the empire by 1977 (Sabharwal et al., 2004).


Bottom of the pyramid-

The BOP global economic scheme as defined by Prahalad and Hart (2002) refers to the prodigious untapped germinative of emerging communicates previously conceit of as unreachtalented or hard to extend. Further than disgusting billion unity, ntrue 70 percent of the sum globe, are in the BOP, earning $1,500 or short annually. These communicates are frequently unlinked to the global furnish manacle and global communicateing documents. The closing of harvest of communicateing infrastructure, such as despatchs documents for advertising, arrangement documents to furnish the communicate, and the low sufferance of this target communicate made it hard and divers times fruithither to penetadmonish this communicate. However, the BOP communicate is may-be the globe’s enlightenedst and the admissionibility of this communicate is befitting easier. [2] 


A mindset, a pervasive situation, or a way of thinking rendezvoused further the confer-upon into the advenient vision. Innovation is notcommand that breeds new results, new services, employmentes and jobs. Invention breeds new conceptions, patents, prototypes, plans, breakthrough experiments, and inaugurated examples. [3] (Kuczmarski)

Innovation is one of the ways that companies can tap the BoP. Tnear are divers features of novelty that aid it to rise a breakthrough in the communicate.

Product Customization – in BoP communicates, the compensation and the features of the results embody a further great role than result contrive in capturing the communicate. In FMCG, the companies are using “Sachets” humanization of the true results. As-well-behaved sachets, insignificanter packaging at inferior compensation sharp-ends is prosperity balance other sufferance separates too. HLL set-on-footed “Operation Bharat” to extend grassy communicates by subscription insignificant packs of toothpaste, openness creams, targeting 20 pet households. [4] Thus companies should cast-out customized result to tap BoP communicate.

Cross-functional Coordination – Coordination balance irrelative functions in an devise is the key to contriveulate cogent BoP communicateing strategies. The companies should too rendezvous on pliancy. For emanation, HLL, through its Scheme Shakti instituted in 2000, encouraged grassy women to unfurl assuredness encircling HLL peculiar concern results. The scheme was test-marketed in Andhra Pradesh and was aimed at creating “income-generating capabilities for subordinateprivileged grassy women by providing a insignificant-scale operation mold, and decorous grassy prop standards through sanity and hygiene assuredness”. The scheme, as-well-behaved being an example to aid grassy women, aided augment the union’s arrangement network at a low expend. It exemplified the sentiment of plug coordination betwixt communicateing and furnish manacle/arrangement functions of HLL in creating assuredness encircling HLL results, thereby increasing infamy visibility and ensuring self-approvaltalented admission to HLL results. [5] 

Pricing – it embodys a very great role but it doesn’t induce to distinguished result observation. Result functionality is a fur further great element as compared to Pricing.

Distribution – The Organized arrangement schemes in India extend simply insignificant towns of 5000 or further. For an cogent BoP, Arrangement and despatch scheme is very great. A union, well-mannered-behaved-balanced a MNC, cannot rise wholesale infrastructure at the BoP. Vitalented segregatenerships delay national unity and unity agents who bear the collective distinguished to adduce unity concomitantly and plant incentives should be emphasized. India’s telecom alteration has mendd connectivity balance the empire and fickle phone observation in this separate is increasing. However, impecunious infrastructure in low-allowance communicates augmentations operations expend. Thus, the involvement of national population in the arrangement not simply mends result arrangement, but too fuels entrepreneurial aspirations, thereby creating further job opportunities.

Promotion – Simply 16 percent of the grassy unity bear admission to newspaper or any other contrive of stereotype resources and that’s why a union scarcitys to be very scrupulous in choosing its demeanor for despatch. The vivid cultural contrives enjoy puppet pretexts, folk dances should be exploited to result a noble impression result engagement.

Advertising – In India, each district has a sepaadmonish phraseology, humanization, godliness and rituals. Along delay noble illiteracy admonish, nonorigination of unwritten resources has posed a big investigate for the companies to promulge in BoP areas. Word of perforation is the best contrive of advertising in these areas. For emanation, Nokia and LG run vans through villages demonstrating and vending their results.

Need to plant sustaintalented examples – Companies should prprextend cheaper institutional praise in apsharp-end to rendezvous on decorous the purchasing capacity of BoP separate.

Marketing investigates –

Tnear are disgusting deep investigates that are countenanced by the devise’s that are procureing to invade the BoP delay their results. These investigates are none other than the 4A’s, which are the pillars delayout which an devise cannot end.

Availcommand – India’s 627,000 villages are unfurl balance 3.2 pet sq. km. Approximately 110 pet Indians feed in grassy areas, and extending them is not self-approvalable, in-particular attached the impecunious thoroughfare infrastructure. Hence, operations expends augmentation and fortuitously it is well-mannered-behaved-balanced distinguished than that in varnished communicates. Therefore, companies are opinion it increasingly hard to cbalance their margins in the BOP communicate.

Affordcommand – Attached the low superfluous sufferance of BOP expendrs, pricing is key to distinguished result observation unmoulded grassy expendrs. Further, unity in grassy areas are not simply compensation perceptive, but too kind cognizant. Therefore, conceding kind results at inferior compensation sharp-ends has posed a investigate for companies enigmatical to cbalance their margins in the backdrop of monumental expend exigency.

Acceptcommand – In the BOP communicate, result functionality is a key prosperity parameter. Therefore, a result contrive that has worked well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved-behaved in unwritten communicates may not be delicious to BOP expendrs if the result functionality is not in consummationion delay their unmet scarcitys.

Awareness – India is abode to unity forcible divers phraseologys and dialects. Further, the cultural estrangement makes it hard for communicateers to rise assuredness unmoulded BOP expendrs. In adduction, low literacy admonishs, coupled scant extend of the electronic resources, are slight to act as a separation to promotional efforts. It has been verified that the best establishs to exalt results or services are national haats and melas or promotional engagements during national festivals. However, organizing such affairs is not self-approvaltalented owing of the noble expends implicated.

Asegregate from the 4 A’s, companies too countenance the forthcoming investigates:

Aggressive pricing by national infamys, Arrangement expends and track to communicate investigates, Insignificant retailers labor to deeptain register in nonorigination of qualified praise acceleration from companies, Rural-varnished divorce in provisions of collective and cultural lifestyle, Closing of servicetalented workforce.

The alliance betwixt the disgusting Ps of communicateing-product, compensation, establish and promotion-and the disgusting communicateing investigates-awareness, availability, admissionibility and supplyability-provides a bthoroughfare communicateing framework. By leveraging the 4A’s, the companies can end mendment and amplifyth.

Marketing mix –

For a union to be prosperityful in BoP communicate, it scarcitys to bear a coalition of results/services which are low expend, cheerful kind, sustaintalented and mendmentable. Hence companies scarcitys to subordinatestand how BoP differs from eminent precedencys and compound a communicateing appropinquation to confront the characteristics of these customers. Past supplycommand is the life of serving the BoP communicate, result modifications procure aid inferior the compensation and mend supplyability. Reducing the packet bigness, exaccomplished sachets, do exalt the result decline but are not the apology. Tnear is a distinguished expend of packaging implicated which erodes any likely mendment and too adds to discarded packaging, hence adding to dirt. The apology to this is to rise a result delay fewer features, exaccomplished Nirma detergent which is supplytalented by the BoP customers making it emulate delay HUL’s induceing communicate detergent Surf. Surf is an distinguished result due to which is gained communicate divide. It had divers additives which makes it soft for humans yet very cogent. The expend is too further compared to Nirma. It doesn’t bear too divers ingredients, it can rise blisters to the operatives. Despite its austerity, the impecunious comprise it owing it is supplyable. The conception of plugness in arrangement documents for expendrs at the BOP is very great. This media, for emanation, having stores that are twain geographically plug and affectively plug. In other say, tender vicinity is too very great.

Pricing for the groundwork of the pyramid is, of road, too very accurate. The investigate near is twofold. On the one operative, tnear is the upshot of supplyability: compensations scarcity to be supplytalented to BOP expendrs. In apsharp-end to end supplyability, they must weaken the expends of resultion and disencumber the results. On the other operative, ¬‚exibility in cancelments is too very great. Providing options of how and when low-allowance expendrs can pay for their results and services constitutes twain a investigate and a rise of competitive practice to secret companies. To do this, secret companies may scarcity the aid of wholesale banks and NGOs as key segregateners. Some communicateing theorists (Karnani, 2007) opinion the BOP as a assemblage of resultrs rather than expendrs. Therefore, innovative cancelment examples, which suffer BOP expendrs to pay using a communicateing exexchange example, would augmentation their command to pay for the things they expend.

Case abridgment -At the prelude of 2008 Tata Motors unveiled the Tata Nano, a insignificant car made for India’s impecuniouser population. Disgusting years prior Tata had end up delay a new concept of cast-outing a car for unity who previously could not supply one. A compensation tag of 100,000 rupees (encircling US$2,350 or £1,500) became the appearance and by 2008 the authenticity. Tata is actual that vending low-expend cars delay low margins can be mendmenttalented when bodys are noble.

Tata endd low expend by using short and cheaper materials. They pretexted that it is likely to plant cars for impecunious delayout compromising on insurance and self-approval. Tata was talented to rise a expend practice by innovative result harvest and arrangement found. They set up a enlightened disseminate arrangement document named “public arrangement scheme” at low expend. By assuring the found of national separateerre units, Tata was talented to cast-out one smooth in the arrangement manacle and emphabigness the signification of commission betwixt a union and the impecunious as customers. [6] In this way, using novelty delay the way of low pricing and disseminate arrangement documents, Tata endd

a lot of resources care in interpolitical and Indian throng past its manifestation in January 2008.


The Strategic framework that applies balance near is Porter’s Five Forces –

By using Porter’s Five Forces, the companies can subordinatestand the communicate that they are encircling to invade in the BoP by leveraging each of the 5 virtues in permission of the union.

Threat of Rivalry: Looking at the separate counteragency from the union’s sharp-end of opinion I furnish that the innovative way of doing employment, segregateicularly the novelty in prize networks, gives the fur required expend practice for gratuitous in the BoP communicate and prepares a competitive practice balance the other embodyers.

Bargaining Capacity of Suppliers: Integrating the suppliers into the prize manacle of the employment and making them a beaming and gross segregate of the employment regularity would immensely weaken the bargaining capacity of the suppliers.

Bargaining Capacity of Buyers: Providing results at a inferior compensation through innovative prize networks and providing prize adduction through innovative prize statement fortifys the perceptual situation of the result in the minds of the customers, augments their gratification of the union’s results and allegiance towards its infamy and thus virtually cast-outs their bargaining capacity.

Figure Porter’s Five Forces example

Threat from New Entrants: Establishing a sinewy prize network and providing a choice prize statement raises the register separations for new entrants. Thus, an balanceall impression of augmentd arrangement, inferior expend, mendd prize and segregatenership delay the customer is a weakend intimidation from fortuitous embodyers and new entrants.

Threat from Substitutes: An mendd result at honorable compensation which is largely availtalented and proffers prize for capital tremendously cuts down the intimidation of replace results as well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved.


The accomplishment of global infamys in BoP communicate separates is artful by its noble affair expends and coordination problems along the infamy promotions, decline and expendr prize manacle. Hence, firms managing infamys in BoP communicate separates scarcity to weaken infamy expends by increasing sales bodys and creating expendr prize. Advertising and sharp-end-of-sales promotions too fortify the infamys in BoP communicate separates.

An accuadmonish subordinatestanding of the low sufferance separate in provisions of their scarcitys, perceptions, comportment is required which in mold procure aid companies to plan a reform employment appropinquation.

It is great to authenticize that serving the BoP communicate requires a irrelative employment example and compoundion of a irrelative communicateing mix.


BoP may prprextend opportunities to rise prize for the companies (CSR) and the impecunious. BoP is unintermittently evolving and is now a hotbed for advenient communicateing activities. Too it has been stated that BoP is very irrelative from the other separates of the pyramid on divers accounts, it demands a accomplished irrelative statute of register, communicateing diplomacy, arrangement diplomacy. This confer-upons a broad occasion for novelty in regularityes, endowment and prize adduction. The key to prosperity for the companies that invade BoP separate lies in noveltys which are consistent and expend cogent. Simply modifying results and vending them is a method to want. Prosperity procure hold on shrewd the BOP intimately. Pricing is of chief signification in serving the impecunious.

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