Successful Enterprises as Means for Economic Growth
Comparative Consider of Polish Regions Podkarpacie and Dolnoslaskie
How can ineffectual entrepreneurship of a portion feign the economic augmentation of two Polish portions, Podkarpackie and Dolnoslaskie?
State of the Art
The aim of this lore plan is to experience out how ineffectual entrepreneurship of a portion feigns the economic augmentation of Polish climes. In Polish discourse the engagement province is used interchangeably delay the engagement region. In this design the engagement portion refers to administrative separate, an life of governance delayin a particularize (Van Langenhove, 2013). Poland is disconnected to 16 portions, some of which, for in the portions forming the Eastern respect are not as polite of as the accessible portion Mazowieckie, in which Warsaw, the consummate is situated, or the other portions at the western band of Poland, such as Dolnoslaskie.
According to resolution of Statistical Center in Rzeszow (2009), the synthetic esteem defining the flatten of economic fruit of territorial governance separates (regions) is unseemly special issue per capita. The Raport Poland 2011 published by the Ministry of Regional Fruit (MRD) in Poland (2011) bestows fruits gathered by Accessible Statistical Office (Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, GUS) which semblance that the genuine augmentation of Polish administration betwixt years 2000 and 2010 was as catholic as 46 percent, making it one of the dissipatedest growing economies in the European Union (MRD, 2011). However, the inequalities betwixt the affluenceiest and the poorest portion bear deepened as polite. The Unseemly Special Issue (GDP) in the most locomotive portion was at the origin of year 2000 further than 9 occasions preferable than in the oftest portion. Subjoined ten years this unlikeness grew up until almost 11 occasions preferable (MRD, 2011). The disparities in GDP per capita, on the other influence were in year 2000, two occasions preferable in the affluenceiest portion than in the poorest portion and grew up to two and a half occasions preferable by the year 2010 (MRD, 2011). Shares of separate climes in GDP in 2012 divers significantly – from 2.1% in Opole portion to 22.7% in the portion Mazowieckie (in 2011, from 2.1% to 22.4% in the similar portions)(GUS, 2014). Studies of Statistical Centre in Rzeszow (2009) semblance that portional GDP and the aggregate of allowance ascribable to the classification of per capita situatePodkarpackie portion on one of the last positions in the European Union, privative for Bulgarian and Romanian portions. The portional GDP per capita in 2012 was at the flatten of 27 719 zÅ‚ in the clime of Podkarpackie (67.0% of the balance dominion) to 68299 zÅ‚ in Mazowieckie (165.0% of the generally-known balance) (GUS, 2014). These studies arrange induced manifestation on disparities in economic augmentation betwixt Polish portions, at-last they are mislaying the reasons for these gaps in portional economic augmentation.
According to esteems by GUS (2014) Mazowieckie is explicitly the affluenceiest and most attrlocomotive portion in provisions of patronage, agoing or investing, thus the disparities in economic augmentation betwixt this portion and the portions in the East of Poland are numerously preferable. Witold Czudec (2013) from Portal for Innovative Trasfre of Knowledge in Science (PITWIN) has persuadeed a proportionately consider of competiveness of portions of Eastern Poland and the accessible portion Mazowieckie. However, Mazowickie is the portion pulling most of the investors as polite as monied residents which may be a motive of lore unfairness. In command to abandon the unfairness in this consider Mazowieckie is left out. Instead, the two portions that conciliate be compared in this lore are the portion Podkarpackie, situated at the south-eastern band of the dominion and the portion Dolnoslaskie, at the western band of Poland (see map). The GDP per capita of portion Podkarpackie in years 2008-2010 aggregateed in ceasely 24070PLN, which is equipollent to 5775 euros and GDP per capita, in the similar bound of occasion of portion Dolnoslaskie was ceasely 38708PLN, which is equipollent to 9318 euros (GUS, 2012).
The portional economic fruit, can be defined as induced and structural fruit entities chosen in the economic ardor of the portion, which should be signed by the movement and administering of new issues and benefits, developing communicates, upgrading of technology, investing , increasing tenure and issueion teachableness , and the “strengthening” of the audience’s financial actions (Sztando, 2000). According to Andrzej Sztando’s thoughts the area of economic augmentation is accordingly fixed on separate entities and manifests itself in achieving a elevated flatten of teachableness and its invariable increasing aggravate occasion. While each audience is an life extracted from the environment in provisions of constitutional, organizational and economic activities. However, disconnection of an life does not balance gaining insurrection from its verbiage. The planting and fruit of the separate life depends on solid manifest stipulations and those that conciliate appear in the forthcoming. In deflect, by increasing the teachableness of separate companies, sectors, cities and portions, augmentation their teachableness and therefore the teachableness of the unseparated dominion (Sztando, 2000). Basing on the thoughts of Sztando, it has been concluded that at meanest one of the reasons for dissipated economic augmentation delayin a portion is auspicious entrepreneurship. However, Sztando does not bestow embodied ins, for in by involving portional facts in his consider. Accordingly this lore conciliate be concentrated on impression of entrepreneurship on portions, by convergenceing on two Polish portions as embodied ins.
In the era of globalization, portionalization and departing from pure appropinquation of outrageous the role of industrial system in civility of portional system, the moment of lore on entrepreneurship in portions and cities augmentations. Increasing reckon of lore institutes and academic centers practice delay portional fruit is a test of cause in this opportunity. Studies persuadeed by them convergence bigly on those aspects of the fruit of entrepreneurship (competitiveness, fund of affluence which is seen as indicator of economic fruit), which are kindled by expend canon of portional system and socio-economic system of the dominion, for in, tax system, canon of labour code, etc. (Platonoff et al., 2001).
A lore plan persuadeed at University of Szczecin (Platonoff et al., 2001) analyzes and evaluates the administration of the city Szczecin and looks at the mode of entrepreneurial entities in the city and their impression on city’s administration. The consider and its fruits are notice-grabbing and present a numerous instinct to the administration of Szczecin and impression of entrepreneurship, at-last it is convergenceed merely on one city in the West of Poland. Thus basing on this lore, it is causeing to persuade a concordant bark of consider in portions delay one of the lazyest growing economies in Poland, Podkarpackie portion, and in one delay dissipatedest growing administration (correct subjoined Mazowieckie), which is Dolnoslaskie, in command to experience out how ineffectual entrepreneurship of a portion feigns the economic augmentation of Polish climes.
The vulgar top of Poland is completisingly intricate. On the one influence, the callinges are not yielding qualified, they do not develop and go bankrupt further repeatedly. On the other influence, the Polish synod does not bear qualified financial instrument to caggravate basic needs for sanity, teaching, composition roads, etc. and numerous others. Businesses pay notice to too elevated taxes, and officials are looking for ways to encatholic their encounter increasing accumulateive needs (Platanoff et al, 2001).
Moreover, it has been observed that in bad occasions oft portions befit worse. Oft portions do not bear any mechanisms for immunizing: they are not competitive, they are not issueive, they do not goods on a global communicate , they bear mixed administration that would mature a yielding landing (Maciejewicz, 2013). This perpetuates the non-location betwixt the near lucky Poland B, cloaking the eastern portions of the dominion and meliorate exposed Poland A, delay the western and accessible portions. The hindmost GUS experienceings semblance that the gap betwixt Poland A and Poland B deepened , flatten though the ofter portions common a extraordinary sum of EU funds esteem millions of Euros in command to aid them to mobilize the portional operational programs . The per capita payments to the eastern climes in 2007-2012 were significantly preferable than those of Western . In restitution, five climes of the eastern respect had to use an restitutional pool of 2.4 billion euro allocated for the correspondent opportunities of fruit (Tomaszkiewicz & Kowalski, 2014).
Regions of Eastern Respect of Poland are in the dissipation of lazy economic fruit and one of the deep reasons for that is inhibiting the fruit of entrepreneurship. For in, low allowance and elevated absorbs fruit in no or a low unseemly emolument, and this in deflect, administer to stagnation or low aggregate of money obtainable from taxes. Low budget revenues from taxes obstruct the fruit of infrastructure which would aid entrepreneurship delayin the portions (for in: elevatedways, sanity, teaching , furtherance of the portion in the universe and other procedures enjoinly by the topical and generally-known authorities ). This administers to decreasing emoluments of separate companies which in deflect coerce their fruit (stagnation of qualified funds for boarding, grafting staff, experienceing new customers, lore and communicateing , etc.), fruiting in inferior tendency of the offered issues or benefits and a decline in their special and intergenerally-known competitiveness. In restitution, low salaries of employees lessen their purchasing susceptibility by limiting the call-for. Consequently, the abatement in the reckon of transactions has a privative goods on the revenues of companies causing depletion of other actors in the economic fetter. This fruits in low competitiveness, thus lazy economic augmentation of a portion (Platonoff et al, 2001).
Composition of Administration of Podkarpacie
The unseemly esteem added (GVA) in Podkarpacie is lashed of subjoined divides: dealing (29.46 %), followed by perseverance (27.02 %) and benefits (25.8 %). Composition (8.28 %) is as-polite of a numerous moment in the administration of the portion , which is traditionally considered one of the senior sectors of the administration of the portion. Slightly further than 7 % of GVA generates financial and security activities . Agriculture, forestry , hunting and fishing possess the last situate inchoate the sections that shapes the GVA of Podkarpacie (Marshal Office of Podkarpacie (MOP), 2011).
In the portion of Podkarpacie at the end of 2012, there were exact aggravate 155 thousand registered entrepreneurial entities (including further than 148 thousand in the privte sector) , which accounted for 3.9 % of entities registered in the unseparated dominion. In hatred of life cease to reaching the generally-known balance of feeble and balance-sized accomplishments ( SMEs) in the completion reckon of accomplishments , the companies of the Podkarpackie portion accumulate a numerously feebleer divide of labour fibre than any other Polish portions. While in Poland this percentage is 50 % it is merely 40 % in Podkarpackie. In the circumstance of micro-enterprises , this percentage is merely 37 %. These proportions sharp-end-out the oftness of the SME sector in the portion (MOP, 2011).
Composition of Administration in Dolnoslaskie
The GVA of Dolnoslaskie is generated deeply by the benefit sector (60%) , including 45.7% of communicate benefits, this is followed by perseverance (32%), and farming (2.2%) (GUS, 2014) .
In the portion of Dolnoslaskie in 2008, the balance tenure in the accomplishment sector aggregateed up to 418.8 thousand herd, and was preferable than in the similar bound of the anterior year by 6.4%. At the similar occasion, in provisions of generally-known tenure in the accomplishment sector augmentationd by 4.8 percent. According to the facts from the Accessible Statistical Office in 2008, on balance 89,7% of labour fibre concerned in accomplishment sector was industrious by the special sector in Dolnoslaskie. Tenure in the special sector augmentationd by 7.4 percent compared to the anterior year (amounting to 375.6 thousand . Persons), notorious sector tenure prostrate by 1.4 percent (amounting to 43.2 thousand living-souls). Balance reckon of employees compared to the anterior year augmentationd by 5 percent (GUS, 2008).
The Deep Objectives of the Project
The percipient design of the plan is to:
- Make the singularity of goodsiveness of skill modees in calling entities in composition of their entrepreneurial germinative in Podkarpackie and Dolnoslaskie.
- Develop designs for rationalization of these modees and therefore, to kindle the entrepreneurship in Podkarpackie.
The philosophical design of the plan is to:
- Develop mould assumptions in command rationalize the skill mode in calling entities
Finally, the useful designs of the plan are deeply to:
- Prepare current knowledge on the economic mode of Podkarpackie and Dolnoslaskie on micro and macro scale
- Shape goodsive system instruments and strategies for the aid of portional calling entities (principally in Polkarpackie)
Possibilities for the fruit of entrepreneurship, and thus sources of affluence of portion’s administration, should not merely be looked at in macroeconomic parameters (absorb of labour, the flatten of cause rates, the esteem of the generally-known vogue, etc.), but as-polite in portional settings (resourceful and goodsive use of divergent opportunities, detriment for movement and collaboration betwixt divergent actors) and microeconomic parameters (differences in skill of companies) (Platonoff et al, 2001).
The starting sharp-end for literature of a portional fruit program is to know the economic germinative domiciled in economic operators and analyzing the deep problems that above their functioning and augmentation. The germinative of entrepreneurship lies in the separate calling entities.
First, a loreing team has to be recruited. The lore team conciliate be lashed of academic staff and students from two senior universities in elaborate portions, Rzeszow University in Podkarpackie and University of Wroclaw in Dolnoslaskie.
In the earliest phase of the lore a symbolical scantling of entrepreneurial entities in the portion has to be attentive, gone considering the unseparated population entails elevated absorbs cognate to catholic aggregate of staff members and a hanker bound of occasion in command to accumulate the facts. Gone the unseparated population is not elaborate, a personal scantling magnitude needs to be firm upon in command to rally a symbolical scantling. 1550 accomplishments from Podkarpackie portion and 4188 accomplishments from Dolnoslaskie portion are to be clarified, representing 1% of the whole population of each of the portions. By wild segregation of the scantling it is balancet that in the accumulateion mode each separate has the similar appearance of getting into the scantling.
After persuadeing wildized sampling, the calling entities must be disconnected into categories by magnitudes of accomplishments, that is micro, feeble, balance and catholic magnituded accomplishments, as polite as, into and line of ardor (construction, dealing, manufacturing, farming and benefits)
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