Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

Platyhelminthes are uniformly disclosed as flatworms. Some of the examples of Platyhelminthes emsubstantiality tapeworms and flukes. These flatworms usually endure as parasites which pampers on its army or it can endure as non-parasitic voluptuouss such as the planarians (Schmidtea mediterranea). On the other edge, Annelida are annelids which emsubstantiality in-great-measure earthworms, marine introduces and leeches. These annelids are primarily detritivores which pamper on sediments that comprehend microorganism. Moreover, there are so some other annelids that are hunters as they seize their plunder delay jaws. Further demonstration on the morphological idiosyncrasys, emblem of substantiality concavity, inlaterality orders and reproductive agency admits us to effect more similitudes betwixt these two lovtalented phyla.

At the primitive glance, twain flatworms and annelids divide low idiosyncrasys as bilaterian voluptuouss. Animals that are bilaterally formly average that their foregoing and later ends are divergent. In enumeration to that, their dorsal and ventral surfaces are so divergent. (Refer to Fig 1 and 2) In similitude to Cnidarians and Cetenophores, Platyhelminthes and Annelids own a remarktalented morphological and physiological organisation as they own familiar organ orders. Twain Platyhelminthes and annelids entertain gentleman tissues that are organised into three seed laminas, namely the endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm (triploblastic). The mesoderm lamina produces loosen to muscles, diverse organ orders and parenchyma tissues. (Alters, 2000) Additionally, twain of them own flaunted some position of cephalisation by discloseing crown and tail-approve organizations. Furthermore, these voluptuouss are kind bodied invertebrates and do not own any limbs. Hence, it is their morphological organization and structural idiosyncrasys that produce loosen to the lowities betwixt Platyhelminthes and Annelida phylum collection.

The idiosyncrasy mentioned over represent the structural lowities betwixt the Platyhelminthes and the Annelida phylum collection. However, resisting the structural lowities, there are differences observed betwixt these two phylum collections. In stipulations of substantiality form, Platyhelminthes are dorsoventrally flattened and own unsegmented substantiality compressiveness. Annelids, on the other operative, are cylindrical and flaunt metamerism. (Refer to Fig 1 and 2) Although twain Platyhelminthes and Annelida are triploblastic, Platyhelminthes are acoelomates, averageing they do not own gentleman substantiality conconsmoothness and their organs are in apposition delay epithelium. On the adverse, Annelida are eucoelomates, they formed gentleman coelom delay adequate coating lamina named peritoneum. (RussellHYPERLINK “#_ENREF_3” et al.HYPERLINK “#_ENREF_3”, 2011)

Most of the flatworms and annelids divide low lowities in their respiratory order. Twain flatworms and annelids join-in in gaseous vary through gas colliquation in their bark lamina. Generally, they respire at their envelope as they do not entertain any eespecial organs for gaseous vary. Comparing their circulatory orders, the annelids own a closed circulatory order which comprehends class vessels neighboring their bark surfaces. These class vessels comprehend

class which carries nutrient and oxygen throughout the substantiality. Class is interrogate by the contractile parallel vessel which acts approve a kernel delayin the gut. The flatworms, in opposition, do not own any class vessels in their substantiality and there is no especialised circulatory order delayin the inlaterality substantiality.

Most of the flatworms entertain an inadequate digestive order which endures of the bung, pharynx and an domestic delay one fissure. Similarly, the annelids so entertain a bung and pharynx. However, it has a rather adequate digestive order in which their domestic has two fissures. The two fissures in the domestic admit for influence motion through the bung and admits for devastate perspiration through the anus. When comparing excretory order in flatworms delay that of annelids, diverse distinctions are discovered. The flatworms excrete their devastate into the gastrovascular conconsmoothness and enucleate their devastate through their bung. On the adverse, the annelids own a two of excretory glands disclosed as metanephridia in each member that excretes divisible devastates products. Add on to that, cubic devastate products can so be excreted through the introduce anus. (RussellHYPERLINK “#_ENREF_3” et al.HYPERLINK “#_ENREF_3”, 2011) Hence, twain these phyla own divergent ways of devastate perspiration.

The flatworms own a lowly laconic order which endures of two lowly agreement named ganglia. The ganglia are a package of resolutions which connects to the hankeritudinal resolution cords and run throughout on the either edge of the substantiality. In enumeration, they own eye spots which admit them to expose for sslight signatures. (Alters, 2000) On the other edge, the laconic order of annelids is rather involved in organization. The annelids endure of a dorsal brain delay a two of resolutions on either edge. They so endure of a two of ventral resolution cords conjoined to ganglia in each member. Furthermore, they so own rectangular resolutions attaching to the ganglia in each member giving the involvedity of the laconic order in annelids.

Both flatworms and annelids own so adopted low reproductive strategies to fix their continuance abutting opportunity. In their reproductive agencys, twain flatworms and annelids are talented to generate asexually or sexually. In asexual multitudinousness, twain of them are talented to generate through clonal fragmentation. When a flatintroduce or an annelid is divide into destroy-matter, each of these destroy-matter gain straightly restore and disclose into a new flatworm. In sexual multitudinousness, twain flatworms and annelids own hermaphroditic sexual organs which admit them to ill-conditioned fertilise via copulation. After ill-conditioned-fertilisation, the introduce secretes a cocoon where the fertilised eggs are deposited. Such sexual and asexual reproductive strategies admit these introduces to expand and obstruct them from obsolescence abutting the opportunity.

The eminent dissonance of organization is a end of a hanker narrative of extrication. Classification of voluptuouss according to their morphological idiosyncrasy yields a eminenter point of description to the voluptuous behaviour. The lowities in the morphological organization and multitudinousness orders betwixt the Platyhelminthes and Annelida allude-to their low house. However, judging barely from their morphology and reproductive order quaint is scant to dispose these voluptuouss. Hence, we want to appear into other key idiosyncrasys that admit us to divergentiate betwixt Platyhelminthes and Annelida. One of the most material key idiosyncrasys that admit us to dispose voluptuouss is genetics. Modern genetic techniques admit us to collate genetic sequences to show their low house. Therefore, molecular grounds obtained from DNA gain yield an complimentary and conducive machine for the identification of the voluptuous phyla.

Literature Cited

Alters, S., 2000. Biology: Understanding activity. Jones and Barlette Publishers.

Moore, J., 2006. An importation to the invertebrates. Cambridge University Press.

Russell, P.J., P.E. Hertz and B. McMillan, 2011. Biology: The dynamic investigation. Cengage Learning.

Ttalented 1: shows the lowities and differences betwixt Platyhelminthes and Annelida







Body symmetry

Biparallel symmetry

Body organization

Soft-bodied invertebrates, does not own limbs

Dorsoventrally flattened,



Have a crown and a tail



Acoelomates(externally substantiality concavity)

Gas vary


Diffusion through bark

Absence of class vessels

Circulatory System

No especialised circulatory order

Digestive System

Inadequate (gut has one fissure)

Excretory order

Excrete devastate by bung

Nervous System

lowly resolution ganglion, own eye spots that expose slight


Both own asexual and sexual multitudinousness

Fig 1 shows the morphological organization of the annelids.

Fig 2 shows the morphological organization of the flatworm.

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