Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation: Quantum Structures

Preparation and Characterisation of Quantum Dot Infrared Photo Detector and Its Application in Night Vision Devices

Submitted by

Mangala Gowri M


Focus of the con-aggravate during this limit was to recognize interaction of electromagnetic radiation delay quantum constructions.

Interband transition and intraband transition are two molds of transition feasible in semiconductors. Intraband transitions are rare for the quantum semiconductor constructions. Intraband transitions betwixt the quantized distillation correspondentizes are feasible depending on opposed parameters. The jar prosperlength depends on talented masses of the carriers, parameters affect dimension, outline and compound of the quantum constructions.

Practical remarks made on quantum constructions affect quantum courteouss and quantum dots were very causeing. “The leading straightforward remark of infrared aridity betwixt conduction subbands of n-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum courteouss was reported in 1985. It was confirmed that intersubband transitions betwixt electronic distributeicularizes of quantum courteouss are cogently polarized parallel the neutralization implicit straightforwardion.” [1] Therefore bright whose polarization has ingredient parallel the neutralization implicit straightforwardion gets fascinated. Therefore “bright must feel a polarization ingredient vertical to the quantum courteous layers.” [1] This is the cogent taciturnity for the quantum courteous infrared photo detectors. On the other operative, quantum wires and quantum dots hypothetically do not feel this taciturnity on the polarization straightforwardion of luminous radiation. For quantum courteous polarization, straightforwardion radiation should not be recognized (perpendicular) to the neutralization implicit straightforwardion, inasmuch-as this mold of recognized impact is undisputed for quantum dots.

Oscillator Strength:

“Oscillator ability is a dimensionless size that expresses the chance of aridity or oration of radiation in transitions betwixt distillation correspondentizes of an bit or molecule.” [2] When an electronic transition occurs an insecure dipole avail allure be immanent by interaction of electric scope of the plan delay electromagnetic radiation. The followingcited conformance explains the contrivance of transition in a plan in unconcealed. Suppose an electron changes its distillation from En to Em by changing its distributeicularize from ψn to ψm. During the transition it allure be in a distributeicularize which is superlie of the two distributeicularizes.

Ψ = aψn + bψm

Probability that the electron in the distributeicularize ψn is |a|2 and chance that it is in distributeicularize ψm is |b|2 so that at any date |a|2 + |b|2 =1. We can see that confluence esteem mn oscillates at abundance γnm = , γnm is the transition abundance.

mn is the oscillator ability as the ability of the vibration is proportional to the confluence esteem of intervening distributeicularize. It is as-polite designated the transition matrix molecule. For undisputed transitions mn is a nonnoinvention esteem and for forbidden transitions it is nothing.

Transition Dipole Moment:

Transition dipole avail is the dipole avail associated delay the transition betwixt two distributeicularizes. It is a multifold vector size. It encodes sight circumstanceors associated delay the two distributeicularizes. The straightforwardion of this dipole avail is the polarization of the transition. The polarization of the transition mentions the interaction of the plan delay electromagnetic radiation delay a absorbed polarization. Clear of the dipole avail of transition gives the ability of the transition.

Transition dipole avail is off-angular matrix molecule of lie operator divers by the distributeicle’s commit. Classically, dipole avail is effect of commit and dissociation betwixt the two commits. In the intercourse of an electric scope, the two commits allure experiment a vehemence in adverse straightforwardion so that a torque acts on the dipole. Similarly, during transition, coupling betwixt an electromagnetic prosper and transition dipole avail of the plan depends on the commit dispensation delayin the plan, ability of the scope and the not-absolute polarization of the scope and the transition. As-polite transition dipole avail depends on the geometries and not-absolute sights of the two distributeicularizes implicated in transition. The concept of transition dipole avail is very available to mention whether a transition is undisputed or not. If the gross defining transition dipole avail is nonzero, that transition is undisputed.

Perturbation Theory:

To recognize the contrivance of interaction betwixt the plan and electromagnetic radiation, we annex quantum automatic disturbance doctrine. Luminous radiation is treated as a disturbance. Electromagnetic radiation provides a date hanging implicit, which assists quantum jumps betwixt distillation correspondentizes. So completion Hamiltonian of the plan has two size, one is date inhanging and another is date hanging. If date hanging distribute is slight compared to date inhanging distribute, then that can be treated as a disturbance.

Considering two correspondentize plan, wclose Ψa and Ψb are two eigen distributeicularizes of unperturbed Hamiltonian H0. The two distributeicularizes are orthonormal. Any other distributeicularize of the plan can be written as a straight cabal of those two distributeicularizes.

Ψ(0) = Ca Ψa + Cb Ψb

Ca and Cb are continuouss, which involve notice about chance of decision the plan in relative distributeicularizes.

Suppose we are rare to apprehend the distributeicularize of the plan following a date t. If tclose is date hanging disturbance, Ψ(t) is anew superlie of the two distributeicularizes. Not merely the two distributeicularizes encircleate delay date, but as-polite coefficients Ca and Cb are as-polite businesss of date. If we can mention Ca(t) and Cb(t) we can recognize the plan at date t. Opposed unimaginative steps manage us to

ÄŠa =


ÄŠb =

Wclose ÄŠa and ÄŠb are date derivatives of Ca(t) and Cb(t) relatively.

Both of the aggravatehead equations smitten conjointly are equipollent to date hanging Schrodinger equation for a two correspondentize plan.

The angular matrix molecules of H’ disappear.


ÄŠa =

ÄŠb =


Considering that H’ is slight, aggravatehead equations can be solved by a course designated successive approximations. Close we as-polite reflect that disturbance is having sinusoidal date reliance.



In the leading command we feel

ω is the driving abundance and ω0 is the transition abundance.

If ω and ω0 are very tidingsinate to each other succor tidings in the clear brackets dominates. So we can say ω + ω0 >> | ω0 – ω|

We fall leading tidings and following simplification

The transition chance gives the chance that a distributeicle started from the primal distributeicularize allure obtain at determinable distributeicularize in date t.

We can see close that transition chance as a business of date oscillates sinusoidally.

Fig: Transition chance as a business of date, for sinusoidal disturbance.

Maximum esteem of chance is . The chance of mound to the climax esteem is abundantly less than 1 for slight disturbance. Another invention to remark close that the chance of transition is leading when ω ω0.

Fig: Transition chance as a business of driving abundance.

Thus as date goes on width of the peak becomes narrower and apex of the peak becomes excellent. That media that the plan allure bear transition delay excellent chance.

Emission and Aridity of Radiation:

An electromagnetic prosper consists of across insecure electric and magnetic scopes. An bit reacts principally to the insecure electric ingredient of radiation. Assume that an bit is defenseless to a sinusoidally insecure electric scope. Reflect that the scope is polarized parallel z straightforwardion.

Then the perturbing Hamiltonian is written as

Note: Considering that the limit of vibration of the scope is hanker compared to the date smitten by the commit to propose encircling delayin the bit we annex electrostatic formula for Vab that is correspondent to


Wclose P = is transition dipole avail.

Ψ is an odd or polite-balanced business of z. We reflect that the angular matrix molecules of H’ disappear. Then the interaction of radiation delay the plan is inferior by certainly the husk of oscillatory disturbance delay Vab

Note: P is off-angular matrix molecule of z ingredient of dipole avail operator qr.

Transition chance is proportional to the distillation dullness of the perturbing scopes. And we see that the chance is proportional to date.

If luminous radiation is colorless, transition chance oscillates. However, if the plan is defenseless to unconnected scatter of frequencies that flopping regularity disappears. The transition reprimand allure be a continuous.

In the calculations, we feel conducive that the straightforwardion of propagation of perturbing radiation is y straightforwardion and it is polarized parallel z axis. However, in custom the plan (affect quantum courteous, quantum dot) is defenseless to a radiation hereafter from all straightforwardions and delay all feasible polarizations. Then the distillation of the scope is shared correspondently incompact these opposed modes. So in the attribute of we feel to supply the middle of |P.n|2 delay n is the straightforwardion of polarization of radiation. Middle is aggravate all polarizations and all luminous straightforwardions.

Quantum Well:

A quantum courteous can be reflected as idealized clear, terminable and courteous-proportioned implicit courteous. It is now palpable that aridity of radiation by quantum courteous depends on the straightforwardion of the transition dipole avail and straightforwardion of polarization of luminous radiation. It can be shown that the prosper business of quantum courteous is a polite-balanced business in cause distributeicularize and it is alternatively polite-balanced or odd in excellent distributeicularizes.

In command to P be nonnoinvention Ψa and Ψb should be of adverse correspondence since z is odd. In adduction, straightforwardion of P depends on Ψa and Ψb. Since the prosperbusiness of the quantum courteous has merely z ingredient, transition dipole avail allure as-polite be straightforwarded parallel the z straightforwardion i.e. parallel the straightforwardion of implicit Vwell(z).

In the instance of recognized impact, the polarization of radiation is vertical to the walls of the courteous allotment or to the implicit. The n that refers to polarization straightforwardion of radiation is in xy flatten.

So choosing cylindrical polar coordinates, we feel

And . Thus, .


Which implies that recognized impact in quantum courteouss is forbidden.

The polarization excerption rules for transitions in quantum courteouss are summarized beneath.





Propagation parallel z




Propagation parallel x




Propagation parallel y




Quantum Dot:

Quantum dot is a quantum construction, which is narrow-minded three dimensionally. Thus, the neutralization implicit has all the three x, y, z ingredients. Similarly the prosper businesss representing the distributeicularizes of quantum dot feel x, y, z ingredients. So the scalar effect betwixt transition dipole avail and the polarization straightforwardion of luminous radiation allure not be correspondent to nothing.

Average of is not noinvention in quantum dots. Thus, the size in quantum dots is nonzero. Tclose is no incapability for straightforwardion of polarization of radiation hypothetically. Well-balanced though recognized impact intraband aridity is forbidden in quantum courteouss, they are undisputed in quantum dots. This is main circumstance of big cause in the fruit of infrared photodetectors.

I attended a two-day collaborator’s workshop systematic by Centre of ART, SIT, Tumkur from 20-02-2014 to 21-02-2014.

Study Plan: In the contiguous half year, centre of the con-aggravate allure be MOCVD augmentation course of quantum dots.

Sigregularity of the CandidateSigregularity of the Guide

(Manala Gowri M) (Prof. (Dr.) Ganesh N. Raikar)


  1. A. Weber. Intraband Spectroscopy of Semiconductor quantum dots, 1998.


3. Proefschrift. Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots, 2011

4. Griffith. D.J, Introduction to quantum Mechanics, 2nd Ed, Pearson Education Inc, 2006.

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