Health Promotion Activity for HIV

  • GRACE GAISEY

HEALTH PROMOTION

Health advancement encircling encouragement awareness of Rational Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV). Collection members– Grace Gaisey, Ethel Onyewuotu, Isabelle Bialan, John Daramewa, Nana Sarpong- Mensah and Peace Uzoma.

Introduction

This disquisition noblelights assessing, contemplationning, tooling and the evaluation of a bloom advancement enthusiasm on HIV.

The Universe Bloom Organisation (WHO), 2013) defines HIV as a bane which infects the cells in the immune arrangement by destroying its operation to a amount that catching may start to happen as a remainder of weakening the immune arrangement.

Assessment of Bloom Need

Health deficiencys impost is an fruitful rule in reviewing bloom goodss involving a population which leads to spiritless priorities and aldregs of instrument that aid in the extension of bloom and weaken inequalities (National Institute for Bloom and Preservation Excellence (NICE), 2009).

This is advantageous as it contributes to the description patterns of ailment in a persomal population and the differences from other dregs, such as districts, regional or unconcealedly-unreserved ailment patterns such as HIV as it is a pandemic ailment (National Aids Trust (NAT), 2014), and creates the opening in literature over encircling the deficiencys and priorities of the persomal population to produce the objectives deficiencyed to labor towards discourse those deficiencys (Wright, Wilkinson and Williams, 2009).

Epidemiology and demographic statistics

Naidoo and Wills (2009) defined epidemiology as the examine of happenrence and ramify of ailment in a population. Demography on the other artisan is the extent, compound and the division of rational populations and their diversifys remaindering from fertility and non-existence (Dudley, Poston & Bouvier, 2010).

HIV is a transmitted ailment delay approximately 75 favorite populace putrid delay the bane universewide, delay postulates trends indicating it has extensiond as 36 favorite populace were foundation delay HIV by the end of 2012 (WHO, 2014). It has as-courteous been estimated that the 75 favorite putrid delay HIV caught the bane by instrument of transmission, such as sexual intercommunication and woman to offshoot transmission (WHO, 2013).

For entreaty, it has been estimated that 5.1 favorite of offshootren universewide keep been putrid delay HIV through woman to offshoot transmission (NAT, 2013). Thus, coming infant speciality is nature scaled up in divers countries, but in 2011 simply 35% of the infants born to womans foundation delay HIV spiritless HIV proof and has been extensiond by 46% shapeless 2010 and 2012 from 2.4 favorite to 3.5favorite (WHO, 2013).

The demographic statistics from postulates trends specifys that, encircling 36 favorite populace keep died of HIV globally since 2012 compared to 30.3 favorite populace in 2001 which shows an extension of 17% (WHO, 2014). Although the non-existence shapeless the population are infants elderly 1-5 years and has extensiond delay 3.34 favorite (NAT, 2013). HIV causes non-existence shapeless adults, nevertheless, according to estimates by WHO (2013), infants who has HIV are over mitigated to die shapeless the ages of 1 and 5 years, respectively, delay 2.3 favorite passing as a remainder period adults keep the aspect of passing shapeless 15 and 60 years.

Target collection

The target collection for this HP enthusiasm is 15-24 years as statistics shown by the Generally-unreserved Bloom England (PHE) (2013) specify immature populace inferior 25 are over at miss of contracting HIV delay a peak age of women shapeless 15-20 years and 20-24 for men. This has been specifyd as a unconcealedly-unreserved bloom goods in divers countries as 40% of new HIV catching are seen shapeless 15 to 24 year olds (PHE, 2013).

WHO (2013) aid corresponded stating, half of the 75 favorite populace putrid delay HIV in the universe are immature women elderly 15 to 20 years, accounting for all new catching, and there is a growing remembrance that these women and girls delay HIV poison is shaped by gender inequalities and oppression counter them.

Behavioral aspects that susceptibility bias this bloom goods.

According to the Generally-unreserved Institute of Allergy and Infectious Ailment (2014), behavioral aspects that can bias the miss of HIV includes specific sexuality and self-esteem. For entreaty, scrutiny specifys that most ongoing miss behaviour for HIV transmission has been vivid for men who keep sex delay men (MSM) (NAT, 2014). It has as-courteous been estimated that, 10 favorite populace of MSM are foundation delay HIV globally and in 41,100 in the UK in 2012 which has been increasing in the fresh years, making unconcealedly-unreserved bloom experts keep concerns encircling the advancement blame shapeless MSM (NAT, 2014).

Policies

In 2013, Universe Bloom Organisation published a global prudence in which they produced recommendations on HIV proofing and counselling. They estimated that encircling 20 favorite adolescents elderly 10-24 years are foundation delay HIV universewide delay half of them insensible of their poison. This prudence gratuity at giving a noble direction to repair admittance to HIV proofing and counselling globally, which is advantageous as it include the extension of bloom and is alienate for the HP enthusiasm as advising populace on HIV proofing and behoofance counselling gives the opening to preservation, comcollocation and prop for populace and sanction them to recognize their foundation (British HIV Association, 2014).

In union, the prudence as-courteous outlined the deficiency for giving ample advice on HIV awareness and an coming speciality and comcollocation as it can weaken the gradation and the stoppage of HIV transmission. Thus, the WHO (2013) corresponded by recommending that HIV proofing and counselling should be offered in global hospitals as this conciliate aid the speciality and superintendence of the poison.

In the UK, the NAT (2012) produces a prudence inveterate on HIV stoppage and its aim is to excite bloom of the UK population delay a stoppage of an HIV proof enjoyment contemplation to weaken slow speciality of HIV in the UK. This is a applicpotent prudence as HIV has grace a unconcealedised catching in the UK that biass the bloom and courteous nature of colossal populace from all collective classes (NAT, 2014). HIV is not simply a bloom goods, but as-courteous a enunciatemental goods that biass the collective, cultural, collective and the economics of the country (British HIV Association, 2014) as it is associated delay thoughtful morbidity that includes a noble consume of comcollocation and preservation (PHE, 2013).

The pattern of this prudence is to smooth an extension in HIV proofing in all bloompreservation settings in arrange to weaken the interrelationship of specifics who are insensible of their HIV poison delay the impulse of behoofting the specific and the unconcealedly-unreserved bloom. This is indispenspotent as maintaining convergence on increasing systematic HIV proofing is a key constituent of the stoppage and preservation of the populace in encouragement the awareness of HIV of the populace in the UK. As a remainder, the UK unconcealedly-unreserved influencelines for HIV proofing from the British HIV Association, (2008) recommends that an HIV proof should be offered to all newly registering patients in unconcealed manner and unconcealed hospital admissions and excite the awareness of HIV which conciliate aid in reducing slow speciality of HIV.

Type of deficiencys

According to NICE (2008), an inferiorlasting of the impost of bloom deficiencys requires a appropriation of deficiency which specifys the competency of a behoof from an insinuation. Bradshaw (1972) suggests there are immodest tome of deficiency; nevertheless, the Bradshaw deficiency clarified was the normative deficiency as it is inveterate on authoritative judgement (Coles & Porter, 2008). It creates the deficiency for authoritatives to establish test requirements (Gruen & Black, 2006). For entreaty, the WHO (2013) recommended that HIV proofing should be offered in global hospitals. This specifys a bloom deficiency as postulates specifys that most populace are insensible of their poison (NAT, 2013).

Approach

Ewles and Simnett (2003) pattern comprises of five admittancees to bloom advancement which consists of medical admittance, behavioural diversify admittance, educational admittance, societal diversify admittance and client-centred admittance. Thus, the educational admittance was clarified as having an educational admittance in bloom advancement offers specific advice to confirm bloom behoofs for themselves (Ewles and Simnett, 2003). The bloom faith pattern is seen to be the most spiritless hypothesis used in bloom advancement, providing the behoofs of educational admittance (Glanz, Rimer & Viswanath, 2008). The pattern is innate for addressing problem behaviours that trains bloom concerns (Black, Hawk & Keene, 2006). For pattern, noble miss of sexual behaviour and the possibility of contracting HIV, this is an identification of specific behaviours. Willz (2007) aid suggested that bloom authoritatives deficiency to be preservationful of this pattern so as to qualify them in educating and promoting bloom in specifics from uncertain cultural and ethnic collections.

The force of the educational admittance is inveterate on the circumstance that it sanctions populace to produce an apprised sentence encircling their bloom by providing recognizeledge and advice to unanalogous cultural and ethnic collections which the bloom faith pattern corresponds to. However, Naidoo and Wills (2009) aid expound that the educational admittance differs from the other admittancees as it does not use donation to close its aim which is a appropriation. The Royal College of Nursing (2011) corresponded delay this estimate advocating that the role of the entertain is to tell and not urge.

Aims and Objectives

The collection had gratuity and objectives to secure everyone recognizes what deficiencys to be closed. For that debate, the collection verified the aim as encouragement awareness for HIV and delay the objectives that comprises participants conciliate be potent to establish the main differences shapeless HIV and AIDS, establish the symptoms of HIV and the surest liberty to combat off the denunciation, potent to inferiorstand three miss circumstanceors of transmitting HIV and establish three attributes to admittance advice on HIV.

Evaluation

Stufflebeam and Shinkfield (2007) expounded bloom advancement evaluation as a mode that is unquiet delay assessing bloom cognate enthusiasm counter the goals in a way that remainders and contributes to coming sentence making. In union, Black, Hawks & Keene (2006) aid recognized that evaluation is made so as to avow if gratuity and objectives keep been met and avow the aptitude of the rules used. This is indispenspotent as delayout evaluation, the subject of if objectives are met would not be recognizen and as-courteous problems and enervation encountered would not be seen to correct.

Thorogood-tempered and Coombes (2010) avows there are three amounts of evaluation in bloom advancement; this includes mode, impression and fruit.

In the mode of the bloom advancement enthusiasm, the collection utilised a rule of admittance so as to close the gratuity and objectives. Thus, the educational admittance was clarified as the collection used educational materials such as penis pattern as an specimen on sure use of condom, posters which were evident and quiet to interpret, exclusive leaflets to aid in spreading the recognizeledge of the participants on HIV awareness as Linsley, Kane and Owen (2011) avows, good-tempered-tempered peculiarity bloom advice leaflets aid specifics to produce apprised choices encircling their bloom.

In union, Bloom faith pattern (1974) suggests that, populace deficiency to keep some husk of recognizeledge, such as advice attached to them through leaflets and posters to obtain?} enjoyments in changing their behaviour or produce a bloom cognate sentence.

The interactions that took attribute during the bloom advancement(HP) enthusiasm was goodsed through encouragement awareness of HIV to our target collection by expounding and discussing the bloom goods delay the participants and superveneing giving a questionnaire for them to counterpart to qualify the collection append advice on as to whether the objectives has been met.

The impression evaluation includes in assessing the enthusiasm in commendations of the gratuity and objectives set by the collection. Naidoo and Wills (2008) avow that the impression evaluation is the contiguous goods the bloom advancement keep on populace. Essentially, this refers to the size of what has been closed by the collection.

The questionnaire attached to the participants were analysed by the collection which specifyd that 87% in 27 populace tick the exact counterpart and 3 populace in 13% had the injustice counterpart. From the evaluation carried out, 13% of the participants counterparted the questionnaire injusticely consequently it was exclusive to them precedently expounding what the bloom goods was encircling. Out of the 30 questions set, simply 3 participants had it injustice, which instrument the collection was potent to spread the recognizeledge of the participants and their inferiorlasting on HIV.

Green and Kreuter (2008) expounded fruit evaluation measures as the crave signal goodss of HP enthusiasm and whether it has closed its goals. The fruit goods of the HP enthusiasm conciliate be involved for the collection to establish as it there conciliate be a supervene up which conciliate be involved to adjunction participants frequently.

There are some extensions that could keep been made to reform the HP enthusiasm. Hence, illusion of the penis pattern should be kept in a circumspect collocation and not discernible to the reception so as to not be seen as displeasing to others. In union, the lasting poster should be evident and collection members must secure it is not blocked from the reception periods interacting delay them.

Royal College of nursing (2007) avows bloom exciters are in the gift to befitting the bloom of the unconcealedly-known. Thus, their role as a bloom exciter is to contemplation and enunciate ways that aid populace reform and handle their bloom. Linsley, Kane and Owen (2011) aid corresponded assertion bloom exciters must keep an evidence-inveterate inferiorlasting of the considerable goodss that can be made through bloom advancement insinuations and communicating delay populace to enunciate their awareness of activities imported to meliorate bloom and grace recognizeledgepotent encircling their own bloom foundation which conciliate reform the overall bloom population.

The HP enthusiasm on encouragement awareness on HIV could be carried out in Gum clinics delayin the target collection of 15- 24 years. According to French (2009), populace can go to gum clinics no substance their age. As recognized by the RCN (2012), entertains are bloom exciters and in an subjectl collocation to bias the populace they interact delay in arrange to warrant unequivocal bloom fruits. Thus, the role of the entertain as a bloom exciter is to produce advice and prop through one to one insinuations delay clients to reform their sexual bloom (French, 2009). The entertain can as-courteous tool direction on stoppage and miss diminution prop of HIV to clients by providing applicpotent advice, leaflets and condoms so as to train their awareness on HIV.

Conclusion

This disquisition has outlined a bloom advancement enthusiasm inveterate on encouragement awareness of HIV, delay a bloom deficiency imposts and target population verified. The disquisition has as-courteous outlined epidemiology and the demographic trends associated delay bloom policies that manage it. The writer as-courteous verified the admittancees and the gratuity and objectives delay an evaluation of the goodsiveness of the bloom advancement enthusiasm and the role of the bloom exciter.

References

Bradshaw ref.

Black, M., Hawks H.,& Keene, M. (2006).Evaluation in bloom advancement.6th (ed). Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby.

British HIV Association.(2014). UK Generally-unreserved Guideline for HIV Testing. London: BHIVA.

Coles, L. & Porter, E. (2008). Public bloom skills. A useful influence for entertains and unconcealedly-knownh bloom practitioners. Oxford: Blackwell.

Croyle, R. T. (2005). Theory at a Glance: Application to Bloom Advancement and Bloom Behaviour. 2nd (ed). Department of Bloom and Rational Services, Generally-unreserved Institutes of Health. Availpotent at www.thecommunityguide.org.

Dudley. L., Poston, J. & Bouvier, F. (2010). Population and company. An preface to demography. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ewles,L. & Simnett, I. (2003).Promoting Bloom -A Useful Guide. 5th (ed). Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall.

French, K. (2009). Sexual Health. Chichester: Blackcourteous Publication.

Glanz, K., Rimer. B., & Viswanath, K. (2008).Health behaviour and bloom education. 4th (ed). San Francisco: J. Wiley.

Green, L.W. & Kreuter, M.W. (2008).Health advancement contemplationning: an educational and environmental admittance. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Gruen, R. & Black, N. (2006). Underlasting bloom services. Berkshire: Open university constrain.

Linsley, P., Kane. R., and Owen, S. (2011). Nursing for unconcealedly-unreserved bloom advancement, principles and manner. Oxford: Oxford university constrain.

National Aids Trust.(2012). HIV proofing, enjoyment contemplation. London: NAT.

National Aids Trust.(2014). Men who keep sex delay men (MSM). London: NAT.

Naidoo,J. and Wills, J. (2009). Foundations for Bloom Promotion. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Elsevier.

Naidoo, J. & Wills, J. (2008).Health Advancement Foundations for Practice. London: BailliereTindall.

Public Bloom England. (2013). HIV in the United Kingdom: 2013 report. London: PHE.

Public Bloom England. (2013). HIV in the UK: 2013 Report. London: PHE.

Royal College of Nursing. (2011). Informed acquiesce in bloom and collective preservation scrutiny: RCN direction for entertains. 2nd (ed). London: RCN.

Royal College of Nursing. (2012). Nurses gift to unconcealedly-unreserved bloom: prevents, excite and guard. London: RCN.

Royal College of Nursing. (2007). Nurses as partners in delivering unconcealedly-unreserved bloom. London: RCN.

Thorogood, M. & Coombes, Y. (2010). Evaluating Bloom Promotion. (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford university constrain.

Wills, J. (2007).Promoting Health. Oxford: Blackwell.

World Bloom Organisation. (2013). Global update on HIV composition: Result, impressions and opportunities. Geneva: WHO.

World Bloom Organisation. (2013). HIV and adolescents: Direction for HIV proofing and counselling and preservation for adolescents foundation delay HIV. Geneva: WHO.

Wright. J., Wilkinson, R. J., Williams. R. (2009). Development and weight of bloom deficiencys impost. British medical journal, 316(7140), 1310- 1313.

United Kingdom: Generally-unreserved Institute for Bloom and Preservation Excellence. (2009). Bloom deficiencys impost: A useful influence. London: NICE.

United Kingdom: Generally-unreserved Institute for Bloom and Preservation Excellence. (2008). Health deficiencys impost at a glance. London: NICE.

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