Globalisation: Homogenisation or Diversification?
- Yannick Buitenhuis
Globalisation has brought substitutes and has increased global interaction. This growing interconnectedness has led to the motion of purposes, values, ways of living and attitudes resisting the earth. Resisting that the interaction betwixt cultivation and globalisation is not a new one, this regularity of cultural globalisation has brought forth a proportionately new-fangled interrogation encircling its outcomes for the earth (Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 3 & 7). The interrogation revolves environing two sundry trends that cultural globalisation can adduce, namely if the globalisation is homogenising, or irrelativeiating the earth. In continuity after a period Nederveen Pietserse (1996, p. 137), these are not the solely trends that can be famous, but are probably two of the ocean ones. This disquisition procure accordingly nucleus itself on this interrogation by discussing twain sides and procure observe the subjoined interrogation in mind:
Is globalisation cultural homogenising or irrelativeiating the earth we feed in?
The discourse adduces the arguments of twain sides to the active and procure be elaborated on the foundation of some earthwide and open self-abandonments. Subsequently, my own conviction encircling the stuff of cultural globalisation is ardent in the omission to vindication the aloft interrogation.
As precedent mentioned, the discourse procure nucleus on two irrelative purposes in the interrogation of cultural globalisation. The two purposes can be seen as each other contradictorys. The foremost that procure be discussed procure be the purpose of homogenisation. Subsequently, the purpose of irrelativeiation procure be discussed. Twain purposes procure be elaborated at the laborer of self-abandonments that are distinguished resisting the earth.
The foremost exposition of the regularity of cultural globalization is the purpose that as a motive of technological newfangledness, interchangeable and cultural synchronisation arising from the ‘West’, the earth is proper past the ‘same’, past endureardised and past equal (Nederveen Pieterse, 1993, p. 265). Homogenisation adduces encircling a earth that is proper astounded by forces making for convertibility that is the global endureardisation of cultivation and literatureal structures (Robertson & White, 2003, p. 15). This concepts controverts that the connections betwixt geographical attributes and cultural experiment are nature weakened by the dynamics of globalisation and that the sensibility of spatial removal is wearing down (Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 9).
A key self-confidence is that of cultural imperialism, the purpose that a few Western societies or the association of the United States push out their cultivation upon the earth (Ritzer as cited by: Kuhn, 2009, p. 56). The transopen expansion of niggardly codes and actions is the cultural atom of this regularity and can be cognate to the concept of consumer cultivation. By adopting the Western/American pattern, cultivations and decrement actions are proper globally past the identical (Kuhn, 2009, p. 56). This can as-well be cognate to the stretch of some self-abandonments. For pattern, tribe earthwide buy a rose for their passion on Valentine’s Day in February. This (commercial) front of this self-abandonment blown balance from the Anglo-American earth is now distribute of frequent cultivations in the earth. Another pattern is Halloween. Tribe earthwide apparel themselves in costumes and are decorating their houses after a period pumpkins and cobwebs. Special equablets are as-well organised revolving environing Halloween, for persuasion the Halloween Fright Nights in pursuit precinct Walibi in Biddinghuizen. So in this condition, one could really controvert that some fronts of (western) cultivation are nature stretch resisting the earth and are carried out upon other cultivations. The identical self-abandonments are nature distinguished and their action is the identical earthwide.
The assist exposition is the contradictory of homogenization. Differentiation assumes that the earth is proper sundry and nucleuses on the mutation betwixt attributes. Individuals and groups possess wave on globalisation and globalisation copes after a period and is characterised by a multiformity of recoilions. The purpose rejects that this regularity establishes a homogenisation of cultivations resulting from one way interaction from Western cultivations (Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 7; Kuhn, 2009, p. 58). Also, Ritzer (as cited by: Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 7) controvertd that irrelativeiation relates to barriers which neutralize flows that supply in making cultivations face the identical. Cultures procure accordingly cling irrelative mould each other and cultural irrelativeiation procure cling in a globalising earth. Practices of other cultivations are confer-upon in irrelative cultivations, but procure cling after a periodin the margins of open and open cultivations. Thus, irrelative global and open cultivations procure accompany next to each other. Solely the criteria that cultural groups use to bound their identicalness and to irrelativeiate from others can substitute (Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 8).
The intensification of flows resisting cultivations motives a past inwardly clear earth. Open cultivations can really be unnatural by globalisation and its flows, and this can wave the alteration of cultivations, but the nucleus of the cultivation procure reocean raise (Ritzer, 2010. Cited by: Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 7). Equable so, these multi-directional global flows and earth regularityes do not wipe out open cultivations, but they deviate some of their distinctions and secure others (Hassi & Storti, 2012, p. 8). The secureing of some distinctions can end laborer in laborer after a period an endeavor to irrelativeiate from the global or a mould of hindrance amorose the forces of globalisation (Kuhn, 2009, p. 59). Link to this, the circumstance that Valentine’s Day is banned in the Middle-East since 2008, bemotive it does not fit in the Islamic earth (BBC News, 2008). Also, cultural groups procure recoil irrelatively to these forces and procure amplify irrelatively, irrelative environments ask for irrelative efforts to moderate.
Just enjoy that there are self-abandonments that are global, there are as-well open and open self-abandonments. For persuasion, solely in the Netherlands and Belgium tribe honor ‘Sinterklaas’. Equable after a period the interrogation revolving environing ‘Zwarte Piet’ and recoilions from other countries, a lot of tribe in the Netherlands include the self-abandonment as distribute of their cultivation. Reactions were qualified, when it came to the generally-known regard that the UN, a global literature, came to dare this cultural entailment for racism in 2013, which equable secureed the procure for some to honor Sinterklaas equable past. Another self-abandonment that united to a cultivation is the observance of New Year in the Asian earth. Instead of the foremost of January, frequent Asians honor New Year according to the lunar enroll. Or another pattern, Thanksgivings Day in Northern America. These patterns illusion that resisting the flows of globalisation, some self-abandonments do not morose balance and are cognate to favoring cultivations, bemotive of the thick literal roots and treatment. So, globalisation cannot abundantly excise a cultivation and its nucleus features which characterises it and does not regularly stretch positive cultural fronts out resisting the earth.
Two irrelative purposes are confer-upon in the interrogation revolving environing cultural globalization. At the one laborer, the purpose that globalisation is homogenising, and at the other laborer the purpose that it is irrelativeiating. Therefore, in the preliminary was asked if: globalisation is cultural homogenising or irrelativeiating the earth we feed in?
In my own conviction, cultivations can be seen as dynamic and accordingly sustain positive substitutes balance spell and are defenseless to visible forces. Globalisation, spell-space compression and technological newfangledness possess made global interaction easier and, thus, interaction betwixt irrelative cultivations is induction attribute. Really irrelative distinction of cultivations, in-great-measure Western, are nature copied al environing the earth and some facets in cultivations are proper the identical, face at Valentine’s Day or Halloween. So, there are really some homogenising effects of globalisation.
But my conviction is as-well in continuity after a period what Hassi & Storti told, namely that the nucleus of cultivations procure not let itself as lenient waved. A cultivation can be seen as concentric circles. The outside rings of a cultivation can be waved easier, enjoy some decrement patterns, but this is irrelative for the nucleus. Some fronts are not so lenient substituted or blown balance to others, bemotive they are literal naturalized and/or do not fit in other cultivations, enjoy Sinterklaas, New Year in Asia or Thanksgiving. There are quiescent cultural irrelativeiations in the earth. Thereby, I conclude that exact enjoy cultivations be-unlike, their recoilions on fronts of other cultivations as-well be-unlike. Aspects that are recognisable and endure suppress to their own cultivation procure be included, but other fronts can be aspect abroad. Tribe can wave globalisation and there is, enjoy Kuhn said, a multiformity in recoilions. In this way globalisation can be seen as ‘the wind’ in a Chinese adage, and when it blows, some uplift walls, period others uplift windmills (European Commision, 2013).
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