Financial Reporting Systems of Germany and the Netherlands

Nobes (1998) classifies the German financial reporting rule as a ‘Type B (powerhither equity)’ and The Netherlands as ‘Type A (impetuous equity)’. Assimilate the financial reporting rules of Gerfrequent and The Netherlands.

National differences bear all behove stereotypical. Indeed the differences betwixt countries may be vast. Influences such as family spring, or attitudes towards trade cultivation are inherently reflected in the way tradees are run, managed and owned. There are too frequent reasons as to why there are differences in financial reporting. These halt on the quality of the general legitimate rule, the image of assiduity financing, the relation betwixt tax and finance reporting rules, the quantity of accounting plea gradation and courteous-balanced accents.(Elliott, 2006)[1]

In provisions of the legitimate rule betwixt Gerfrequent and the Netherlands, it is apparent tat they twain supervene a courteous-bred law rule which is contrariant to the vile la process of the United Kingdom contained amid the Companies Act 1981.[2] However, for the purposes of this diatribe, I allure standpoint on the similitudes betwixt the financial cheered rules of German and the Netherlands after a occasion references to the Nobes’ (1998) designation of Gerfrequent nature a powerhither equity (Type B) occasion the Netherlands in a impetuous Equity (Type A).

I allure reflect Nobes’ plea by reflecting equity figures for twain Gerfrequent and the Netherlands in reference of their images of equity and allure little assimilate the financial reporting rules of the two countries.

Although equity is represented in frequent contrariant forms, it is generally defined as “the rate of a crew which is the wealth of its plain distributeholders (the crew’s occupyions hither its liabilities, not including the plain distribute cardinal)[3]

In provisions of financial accounting reporting, reflectations of which is the appropriate way of financing a trade, i.e. the counsel required by equity investors are contrariant to those of attack creditors. Impetuous equity can be defined as a exalted harmony betwixt equity dispense cardinalisation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) whilst powerhither equity is a low harmony betwixt dispense cardinalisation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).[4] I, Gerfrequent had the meanest equity of 5 countries which were thought-out. (49%). This shows that contrariantly America, France or presumably the Netherlands, Gerfrequent does not rely heavily on particular investors.

Specifically, Nobes (1998) develops a frameork that prosecute to decipher the differences in intergeneral accounting. Nobes catagorises accounting rules into two images: Class A (accounting for beyond distributeholders) and Class B (accounting for tax and creditors). Two mutables designate whether a state allure bear a Class A or a Class B accounting rule: (1) the image of cultivation and (2) the force of the equity-outsider financing rule. According to the type, countries after a occasion Image A cultivations bear patent clear impetuous beyondr-equity financing rules that bear led to the bud of a Class A financial reporting rule. Therefore, approve America and the UK, the Netherlands has relied on a Image A accounting rule that is relaint on a exalted harmony of equity siege as oposed to hypothecation creditors.

Conversely, countries after a occasion Image B cultivations bear powerhither beyondr-equity financing (i.e. powerhither equity) rules that bear led to the bud of a Image B financial reporting rule . This type is comonly disclosed to be beloved custom amid continenatl Europe including Germany.

Nobes (1998) stsudies the concatenate betwixt the financing rule and accounting, but too believes that a Image A rule in provisions of equity financing is not wholly haltant on Image A accounting, but instead manifest or beyondr equity financing is urgent.

By delineation on types, Nobes (1998) examines Japan. Japan is a state after a occasion frequent listed companies as courteous as enlightened equity dispense, but instead of the dispense nature cheered manifestly, most of the distributes are owend by Janpanese banks or other companies, investors etc). According to the type, financial reporting in Japan should teach the qualityistics of a Image B accounting rule. Nonethelss, Nobes (1998) in deciphering why Gerfrequent is substantialy contrariant to the Netherlands claims that differences in cultivation, i.e. countries that bear altered their cultivation through war allure usually inoculate the cultivation and accounting rule regulative from the dominating state. This deciphers, for type, why some support colonial African countries occupy a image A rule notwithstanding having very powerhither accounting rules.

As famous prior, Nobes standpointes his discourse on the concatenate betwixt financing rules and accounting. He assumes that some cultivations direct to impetuous equity-outsider financing rules and others do not, but he leaves the testimony of this antecedent relationship for others. Nobes appears to appoint a very expansive inspection of cultivation to this mutable in his type. In a simplified type presented prior in his pamphlet he refers to this mutable as “culture, including institutional structures”[5] A pigmy testimony of the differences betwixtt the cultivation of institutional structures is examined beneath.

While a Image A designation severeds accounting and tax rules, Image B does not.[6] Image A in similitude to Image B too has an vast auditing rule. This is gentleman for the Netherlands in similitude to Germany. In US, UK and Netherlands, concatenate betwixt taxable allowance and accounting allowance is ample powerlesser, after a occasion severed tax accounts and financial accounts. The counsel is cheerful after a occasion manifest investor counsel in inclination thereby standpointing on a enlightened equity dispense (Type A). In similitude a Image B taxation rule such as that of Gerfrequent tax accounts which are published financial accounts are not usually cheerful for investors, but instead inner forces such as crew investors, distributeholders etc.

In sum, the Image A rule such as that in custom in the Netherlands and as designed by Nobes is one of dynamic accounting formulated after a occasion the manifest investor in inclination thereby creating increased insist for manifest siege. On the other artisan, Gerfrequent experiences the counter of this, after a occasion taxation and accounting rule which is interlinked and an sketch of financial reporting for inner investors rather than manifest investors in inclination.


Classification established on Corporate Finance, 10/IA1 Lecture 10.pdf

Elliott et al, Financial Accounting and Reporting, (2006 10th ed)

Dictionary of Accounting, Collin Publishing (2001)

Nobes (1998)


[1] Elliott et al, Financial Accounting and Reporting, (2006 10th ed) p 136

[2] Ibid, p137.

[3] Dictionary of Accounting, Collin Publishing (2001) p.99

[4] Elliott et al, Financial Accounting and Reporting, (2006 10th ed) p 137

[5] Nobes (1998) p. 177

[6] Designation established on Corporate Finance, 10/IA1 Lecture 10.pdf

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