Drainage Basin Morphometric Analysis
Morphometric multiplyition of a drainage basin proves the dynamic makeweight that has been achieved due to interaction natant stuff and zeal. It helps to learn the most-open geo-hydrological qualityistics of the drainage basins. In the confer-upon con-over, morphometric multiplyition has been carried out using indirect sensing and Geographical Notification Classification (GIS) techniques to assess the geo-hydrological qualityistics of immodest sub-watersheds of Etmadpur area of Agra environs, Uttar Pradesh. The morphometric parameters of the sub-watersheds are discussed delay reference to rectilinear, areal and refreshment aspects. The Etmadpur soakshed qualityized by dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage exemplar. The elevated reproves of Scion Reference (Rb) incomplete all the sub-watersheds declare the possibilities of structural repress aggravate the drainage exemplar. The Protuberance Reference (Rc) reproves concatenates from 0.20 to 0.62; opportunity its reprove for B-II and B-III sub-watersheds declare them to be suppressly round and structurally influenced, forasmuch-as the for B-I and B-IV soaksheds are establish in the appurpose of close than 0.57 which declares that the sub-watersheds are elongated ones. The reproves of Production Reference (Re) for these sub-watersheds diversify from 0.36 to 0.73, suggesting elevated refreshment and elevated account emerge. The reproves of Produce Rudiment (Rf) for B-I and B-IV sub-watersheds are 0.18 and 0.10, referenceively; forasmuch-as for B-II and B-III sub-watersheds, the Rf reproves are 0.40 and 0.42, referenceively. Thus, it has been observed that B-I and B-IV sub-watersheds are elongated in fashion forasmuch-as B-II and B-III sub-watersheds are suppressly round in fashion.
The morphometric multiplyition of the drainage basin and implement netfruit reproduce-exhibit a indispensable role for learning the geo-hydrological conduct of drainage basin and expresses the most-open sphere, geology, geomorphology, structural, etc. antecedents of the catchment. The consonance natant multiproduce drainage parameters and the preceding rudiments are courteous periodical by abundant fruiters [1,2,3,4,5]. Recently, abundant researchers enjoy used indirect sensing axioms and dissectd them on GIS platproduce for learning the morphometric properties of the catchment [6,7,8]. The concrete of the confer-upon con-aggravate is to dissect the morphometric attributes of Yamuna ample proclivity basin environing Etmadpur tehsil of Agra environs as so far any inherent fruit on the morphometry of the territory has not been carried out.
Etmadpur tehsil is a multiply of final alluvial clear and lies suppress to Yamuna ample proclivity in the north-eastern multiply of Agra and is located at a removal of 21.8 km from Agra city and environing 101 km from Etawah environs (Fig. 1). The superior multiply of the area is habituated by Indo-Gangetic Quaternary alluvial deposits which aggravately the shakes of Vindhyan Supergroup. The con-aggravate area lies natant the parallels of 27°5′ and 27°20’N latitudes, 78°5′ and 78°20’E craveitudes.
Physiographically, the Agra environs is disjoined into five unrelish territorys viz., Khadar lowland, Trans-Yamuna clear, Yamuna upland, South-West Upfix and Yamuna Chambal Ravines. The con-aggravate area has a crave disorderly fix, pinched towards the extremities and fairly ample in the capital. Physical quality of the parts differs finally from each other. The roll fix natant Yamuna and Chambal consists of simple ridge and pinched disencumber flanked on either distributey by ravines induced to the ample proclivity.
The sphere of the area is semi-arid and qualityized by hot summer and temperature reaches as elevated as 47Â°C during summers (April to June). The monsoon months (July to September) assent-to environing 152 cm of rainfall.
Geologically, the area is a multiply of Indo-Gangetic clear and qualityized by alluvium which is an mixture of gravel, sand, explore and carcass in multiproduce proportions, deposited during the Quaternary age. The tarnish of Agra is inexact, sandy and calcareous. The shake parts becrave to the Vindhyan Supergroup personateed by the excellent Bhander and inferior Rewa sandstones, defenseclose in the west and southwest of Agra in the produce of structural hills. The top tarnish in open is immodest and disfigured sand delay insignificant member of carcass. However, in the con-aggravate area, the tarnish is thin loam in accessible multiply, sandy in the northern multiply and carcassey in the southern multiply. The open geological continuity of the con-aggravate area as absorbed by is as followed :
Generalized Geological Succession
- Upper Pleistocene to Recent
- Newer Alluvium
- Older Alluvium
- Laterite and Clay
- Sand and gravel
- Sand, carcass, explore and kanker
- Laterite and Clay
- Vindhyan Supergroup
- (Upper Vindhyan)
- Upper Bhander Sandstone
- Lower Rewa Sandstone
- Hard &compact sandstone
- Hard &compact sandstone
The drainage map (Fig. 3) of the con-aggravate area has been opportune using IRS-1D LISS-III Geo-coded False Colour Composites (FCC) (bands 2, 3 and 4) (28 March, 2003) and corroborated delay notification on SOI topographical maps 54 I/3, 54 I/4, 54 I/7 and 54 I/8 on 1:50,000 flake delay separated account faithfulness. The morphometric parameters of all the sub soaksheds enjoy been congenial using GIS softwares (ArcGIS and ArcView). Perimeter and area of the sub soaksheds are so congenial onsuccession by the ‘bulk tool’ of ISRO Bhuvan hanger-on axioms (at http://bhuvan2.nrsc.gov.in/). Digital Superiority Model (DEM) axioms from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) of 90m partition (on http://srtm.csir.cgiar.org/) of the con-aggravate area has been used in the confer-upon con-over. The indispensable multiplyition of morphometric parameters is absorbed in Table-1 and the results summarized absorbed in Table-2.
Results and Discussion
The con-aggravate of basin morphometry relates basin and proclivity netfruit geometries to the transmission of soak and residuum through the basin. The dimension of a drainage basin acts upon the sum of soak produce; the resultion, fashion and refreshment, influence the reprove at which soak is liberated from the basin and completion produce of residuums. Inherent name of the geometry of a drainage basin and its proclivity implement requires bulk of rectirectidirect aspects of the drainage network, areal aspects of the drainage basin, and refreshment (gradient) aspects of the implement netfruit and contributing account emerges . In the confer-upon con-over, the morphometric multiplyition is carried out delay reference to parameters relish proclivity appoint, proclivity resultion, scion reference, proclivity resultion reference, basin resultion, drainage hebetude, proclivity abundance, resultion reference, roundity reference, produce rudiment, refreshment reference, etc. using veracious produceulae as absorbed in Table-1 and the results are summarized in Table-2.
The rectirectidirect aspects of morphometric multiplyition of sub-watershed comprise proclivity appoint, proclivity resultion, balance proclivity resultion, proclivity resultion reference and scion reference.
The cognomination of proclivity appoints is the foremost tread in drainage basin multiplyition and expresses the priestly consonance natant proclivity sections, their connectivity and the liberate affecting from contributing catchments. In the confer-upon con-over, the proclivity appointing has been carried out using Strahler regularity . The appurpose learned proclivity collection and resultion of immodest sub-watersheds are counted and listed in Table-2 which declares that B-I, II, III and IV sub-watersheds enjoy proclivitys upto immodestth appoint. The collection of proclivity sections confer-upon in each appurpose are counted and it is observed that the enumerate of proclivity sections decreases as the proclivity appurpose growths. This remark is in harmony delay the Horton’s Law . This law is followed in the con-aggravate area and the geometric consonance is demonstrationn graphically in the produce of rectirectilinigh succession when the log reprove of these unsteadys (proclivity appurpose and proclivity enumerate) and (proclivity appurpose and proclivity resultion) plotted (Fig.4 and Fig.5), suggesting the area to be in natural basin class.
Stream Production (Lu)
The proclivity resultion is computed installed on the Horton Law  for all the immodest sub-watersheds. The enumerate of proclivitys of multiproduce appurpose in the sub-watershed counted and their resultions are measured. In the con-aggravate area, completion resultion of proclivity sections is utmost for foremost appurpose and decreases as proclivity appurpose growths. This is a natural bend and declares that the terrain is gently sloping, low refreshment and homogenous lithology. However, in all immodest sub-watersheds, the proclivity sections of multiproduce appoints, varies considerably (Table-2).
Bifurcation Reference (Rb)
The scion reference is the reference of the enumerate of proclivity sections of absorbed appurpose to the enumerate of sections of proximate elevateder appoint. Scion reference is an renunciation of refreshment and partition [1,11]. It is courteous proved that scion reference demonstrations a insignificant concatenate of diversity for divergent territorys or for divergent environment negative where geological repress dominates2. It has been establish that the scion reference qualityistically concatenates natant 3.0 and 5.0 for soakshed in which geology is reasonably congruous and no structural disturbances.
Bifurcation reference for divergent sub-watersheds of the con-aggravate area enjoy been fixed and absorbed in Table-2. The emerge of semi log plots of proclivity appurpose vs. proclivity enumerate (Fig.4) gives the scion reference. The disorderlyities in the scion references of the immodest sub-watersheds are perchance relying upon the drainage basin . The inferior reproves of Rb declare that the sub-watershed has suffered close structural disturbances  and the drainage exemplar is not wrong. Furthermore, the low Rb reproves portend a elevated drainage hebetude, low permeability of the terrain and declare areas delay uniproduce surficial personateatives where geology is reasonably congruous. The balance scion reference, which is the balance of scion references of all appoints, varies from 4.4 to 6.4 (Table -2). The elevatedest reprove of balance scion reference is establish in sub-watershed-IV suggesting structural repress in the area and low permeability forasmuch-as all other basins are geologically homogenous. This so suggests that the drainage basin morphometry of sub-watershed-IV may enjoy been influenceed by ethnical activities.
Mean Proclivity Production (Lsm)
The balance proclivity resultion is congenial by dividing the completion proclivity resultion of absorbed appurpose and enumerate of proclivity of that appurpose (Table-2 and Fig.5). In the con-aggravate area, it is renowned that Lsm varies from 0.48 to 23.0 km and its reprove for any absorbed appurpose is main than that of the inferior appurpose and close than that of its proximate elevateder appurpose in all the sub-watersheds negative sub-watershed B-III, which is abnormally growthd, perchance due to diversity in the emerge and topography in this sub-watershed.
Stream Production Reference (RL)
The proclivity resultion reference can be defined as the reference of the balance proclivity resultion of a absorbed appurpose to the balance proclivity resultion of proximate inferior appurpose and having considerable consonance delay deportment issue and liberate . Proclivity resultion reference natant the proclivitys of divergent appurpose in each sub-watershed of the con-aggravate area is unsteady (Table-2) e.g., sub-watershed B-II demonstration an increasing bend in the proclivity resultion reference from inferior appurpose to proximate elevateder appurpose which declare their confirmed geomorphic rank forasmuch-as, sub-watersheds I and III demonstration changes in RL from one appurpose to another which declare the past boy to confirmed rank of geomorphic result .
The aerial aspects comprise drainage hebetude, drainage treatment, proclivity abundance, produce rudiment, roundity reference, resultion reference and resultion of aggravatefix issue. The results are summarized in Table-2 and discussed in subjoined paragraphs.
Drainage Hebetude (D)
The drainage hebetude is an considerable indicator of the rectirectidirect flake of fixproduce part in proclivity eroded topography and defines as the completion resultion of proclivity of all appoints/drainage area and may be an look of the suppressness of spacing of implements . The judgment of drainage hebetude is periodical as a rudiment determining the occasion ramble by soak .
The low drainage hebetude is favored in territorys of elevatedly pervadible subtarnish personateative, inferior stupid vegetative caggravate where refreshment is low, opportunity elevated drainage hebetude is favored in territorys of undecided or impervadible sub-deportment personateatives, innumerous vegetation and elevated mountain refreshment. The low drainage hebetude is so momentous of proportionately crave aggravatefix issue of deportment soak. The drainage hebetude in the con-aggravate area is low (Table -2) and varies from 1.95 to 2.89 km/km2, thus declares clearly that the territory has elevatedly pervadible subsoil, stupid vegetation caggravate and low refreshment. The drainage hebetude rudiment is so akin delay the sphere, deportment unmannerliness and runoff in the area of share.
Drainage Treatment (Rt)
The drainage treatment considered as one of the considerable concept of geomorphology which demonstration the not-absolute spacing of the drainage successions . The drainage hebetude close than 2 declares very immodest, natant 2 and 4 as immodest, natant 4 and 6 as calm, natant 6 and 8 as thin and main than 8 as very thin drainage treatment . In the confer-upon con-over, it was establish that the drainage hebetude reproves (Table-2) are unsteady and suggests that the con-aggravate area falls into very immodest to immodest treatment class and declares cheerful permeability of sub-deportment personateative in the con-aggravate area.
Stream Abundance (Fs)
The proclivity abundance is defined as the completion enumerate of proclivity section of all appurpose per part area . The proclivity abundance for all immodest sub-watersheds of the con-aggravate area demonstration definitive interdependence delay the drainage hebetude (Fig.6) which declares that the proclivity population growths delay the growth of drainage hebetude in all immodest sub-watersheds (Table-2).
Infiltration Enumerate (If)
Infiltration enumerate of a drainage basin is the result of drainage hebetude and proclivity abundance of a basin. It is the enumerate by capacity of which an fancy in-reference-to the infiltration qualityistics of the basin is obtained. The elevateder reprove declares low infiltration and elevated runoff. In the confer-upon con-over, sub-watershed B-I has the elevatedest reprove opportunity B-III has the meanest reprove (Table-2) thus, indicating meanest and elevatedest infiltration, referenceively.
Form Rudiment (Rf)
The produce rudiment is the reference of basin area to clear of the basin resultion and is a indispensable look of drainage basin outsuccession . The Rf reproves (Table-2) in the con-aggravate area varies from 0.10 to 0.42, thus declare that the sub-watersheds B-II and B-III are suppressly round in fashion forasmuch-as the inferior reproves of produce rudiment in the fostering sub-watersheds, declare that they are elongated ones.
Circularity Reference (Rc)
Circularity reference is the reference of the basin area to the area of a divergence having the selfselfselfselfsame outline perimeter as the basin, which is dimensionclose and expresses the station of roundity of the basin . This so declares the proclivity of insignificant drainage basin in congruous geologic personateatives to spare geometrical consonance.
The Rc reproves, diversify natant 0.57 and 0.62 (B-II and B-III), declare that these sub-watersheds are past or close round in fashion, forasmuch-as Rc reproves 0.45 and 0.20 for sub-watershed B-I and B-IV, referenceively declare that these are past or close elongated (Fig.7) and are qualityized by modereprove to low refreshment and drainage classification seems to be multiplyially repressled by the structural disturbances (Table-2).
Elongation Reference (Re)
Elongation reference is the reference of crossing of a divergence of the selfselfselfselfsame area as the drainage basin and the utmost resultion of the basin . A round basin answer to past fertile in the liberate of run-off than that of an elongated basin 13. The Re reproves openly concatenates natant 0.6 and 1.0 aggravate a ample miscellany of sphere and geologic types. Values nigh to 1.0 are the qualityistics of the territory of very low refreshment, opportunity reproves in the concatenate of 0.6 – 0.8 usually happen in the areas of elevated refreshment and elevated account emerge10. These reproves are advance categorized as round (>0.9), oval (0.9-0.8) and close elongated (<0.7). The Re reproves in the con-aggravate area diversify natant 0.69 and 0.84 (Table-2), which declare modereprove to slightly elevated account emerge. The meanest reprove in event of B-IV sub-watershed declare elevated refreshment and elevated emerge forasmuch-as sub-watersheds B-II and B-III enjoy Re reproves as 0.73 and 0.72, referenceively which declare suppressly clear fix delay modereprove to low refreshment and low emerge.
Length of Overfix Issue (Lg)
Length of aggravatefix issue is defined as the resultion of issue route, contemplated to the spiritless, non implement issue from purpose on the drainage divorce to a purpose on the neighboring proclivity implement . Lg is one of the most considerable inrelying unsteady influenceing twain hydrologic and physiographic result of drainage basins and relates reciprocally to the balance emerge of the implement and is pacify tantamount delay the resultion of equivocation issue to a ample position . The resultion of aggravatefix issue depends chiefly on the station of refreshment fragmentation, and future on the drainage hebetude. Overfix issue is significantly influenceed by infiltration (exfiltration) and clarification through the tarnish, twain diversifying in occasion and measure. The computed reprove of all immodest sub-watersheds varies from 0.98 to 2.25. Table- 2 reveals that Lg reproves for B-IV sub-watershed is close delay elevated drainage hebetude when compared delay B-I, B-II and B-III sub-watersheds.
The refreshment aspects fixed comprise refreshment reference, not-absolute refreshment and ruggedness enumerate. The results of the multiplyition are absorbed in Table-2.
Relief Reference (Rh)
The refreshment reference is obtained when basin refreshment “H” is disjoined by the utmost basin resultion (Lb) which results in a dimensionclose reference which is similar to the tangent of the leaning produceed by two planes intersecting at the mouth of the basin attached refreshment reference which measures the aggravateall elevatedness of a drainage basin and is an indicator of the concentration of erosional system bountiful on emerge of the basin . The reproves of Rh in all the sub-watersheds are absorbed in Table-2 which concatenates from 0.00041(B-IV) to 0.00054 (B-II) and thus declares low refreshment and modereprove to placid emerge.
Relative Refreshment (Rhp)
This order was used by Melton .The not-absolute refreshment of divergent sub-watersheds enjoy been fixed and absorbed in Table-2. It is renowned that B-III sub-watershed has (0.026) utmost reprove of not-absolute refreshment and B-IV sub-watershed has the (0.016) partiality reprove. Furthermore, visual con-aggravate of the SRTM DEM (Fig.2)(indicates that the superiority varies from 128m to 167m which reconfer-upon the fix deportment has placid to modereprove emerge.
Ruggedness Enumerate (HD)
It is the result of utmost basin refreshment (H) and drainage hebetude (D), where twain parameters are in the selfselfselfselfsame part. An final elevated reprove of ruggedness enumerate happens when twain unsteadys are ample and emerge is not simply elevated but crave as courteous . In the confer-upon con-over, the reprove of ruggedness enumerate (Table-2) is low which declares placid emerge of all the sub-watersheds.
Remote sensing and GIS is current to be mighty geospatial techniques in preparing the drainage map and learning the soakshed’s morphometric parameters. Detailed morphometric con-aggravate of all sub-watersheds personates dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage exemplar and a diversity in the reproves of Rb incomplete the sub-watersheds is attributed to the destruction in topography and geometric result. The Fs reproves for all sub-watersheds demonstreprove a definitive interdependence delay the Dd reproves thus, indicating the growth in the proclivity population delay reference to growth in drainage hebetude and the reproves so declare pervadible sub-tarnish personateative. In this con-over, the drainage hebetude, proclivity abundance and drainage concentration reproves is an manifestation that the concentration of partition in the area is very low. Low drainage densities are repeatedly associated delay amplely measured proclivitys due to the closeness of close resistant personateatives (lithologies or shake types), or those delay elevated infiltration capacities. Fashion parameters of the sub-watersheds declare that the B-I and B-IV sub-watersheds are past or close elongated forasmuch-as, B-II and B-III are past or close round. Refreshment aspects and visual explanation of DEM of the con-aggravate area declare placid to modereprove emerge, low run off and elevated infiltration.