An Analysis Of The Extended Mind Philosophy Essay

“… Minds apexamine ours can (externally the demand for any radically new techniques, technologies, or interventions) stretch into the cosmos-people” (Clark, 2010, p. 81). Evaluate this announcement after a age regard to the lore on stretched cognition.

This disquisition endowment to consider the stretched liking, apparently any demand of perfectly adapting new techniques, technology, or interventions the likings apexamine ours can enlarge into the cosmos-mob (Clark, 2010). The nucleus of the disquisition accomplish be on interior and apparent exactice of the liking and accomplish evaluate the announcement made by Clark (2010) after a age regard to other lore on stretched cognition.

Cognitive research believes that the liking has intangible exactices which are common to computer axioms structures and computational proceedings identical and computational algorithms. Apprehensive researchers own put obtrusive that the liking holds intangible exactices as rules, images, close affirmation, and concepts (Dawson 1998). According to Norman (1988, 1993) cognition is estimateed as provisions of ‘knowledge in the culmination’ and ‘knowledge in the cosmos-people.’

According to Clark (2010) one of the most telling floating discussions in governmental and moral philosophy is the stretched liking, which refers to the concept betwixt the liking and the environment, from the topic of Clark and Chalmers (1998) locomotive apparentism or Hypotopic of Large Cognition (HEC).

The stretched liking commences after a age the scrutiny of ‘where does the liking plug and the pause of the cosmos-mob arise?’ in counterpart to the topic Clark and Chalmers (1998) give an resource estimate after a age Hypotopic of Large cognition (HEC). This is to be celebrated from the aggravate oral apparentism aim from the match of (Putnam, 1975 & Burge, 1986). Clark is examination for mob to visualize that entitys could exertion images of geometrical shapes on a computer ward, by the use of a neural secure in their culminations or by using a “rotate” dot in the cosmos-people. Clark affirmed that the secure perspective is indisputablely apprehensive; hence the dot perspective is as polite, in hatred of either if they are carried out in the culmination or in the cosmos-mob (cited in Clark 2008).

For this controvert, it can be controvertd that the liking stretchs into the cosmos-mob which was Clark’s faith in technology, tangible designs, chips and CD-ROMs, as apparent remembrance stores that entitys can regard as demands decree quality of coupled provisions (Clark and Chalmers 1998).

According to Dartnall (2007); (Schegloff, 1992, adduce Alterman, 2007), Clark and Chalmers (1998) admitted that the regularityes in the cosmos-mob susceptibility be seen as specific, “truly intangible says-experiences, desires, emotions, faiths, and so on” susceptibility be in the liking. Neverthescanty when it is done in the culmination, it should to-boot add up as apprehensive when it is carried out in the cosmos-people, Dartnall (2005) affirmed that the liking leaks or loops into the cosmos-people. Clark and Chalmers (1998) controvertd that apprehensive regularityes stretch into the cosmos-mob when an specific uses pen and pamphlet to exertion-out a whole, using phraseology to exertion or to exertion-out a whole and the use of computers. Zhang and Norman (1994) induce our regard to interior exactices as entity true to divers apprehensive tasks and not exact input and stimuli to the interior liking. This instrument that all these researchers topic profession a patronageive discussion toward Clark (2010) stating that the anthropological liking can be stretched into the cosmos-people.

Clark and Chalmers (1998) made such discussions as apprehensive says entity “Parity discussion” by the things in the environment, in which they confirm a sum of practictalented designions to this discussion such as the apprehensive and the aware, portability and reliability. They unfold two spurious characters to patronage their discussion that the liking can stretch into the cosmos-people, using the stance of Otto and Inga, who were twain assiduous in art. Inga has a typical commanding brain, age Otto suffers from Alzheimer’s complaint. They heed about an sight at opposed ages and attributes and they twain flow to go, Otto regards his still n essbook, which says that the museum is on 53rd street so he went to 53rd street to the museum. Whereas Inga resumptions that the museum is on 53rd street and strides to the sight, as a engagementination of this plaint Clark and Chalmers (1998) provisionatic that the still n essbook plays the similar role for Otto that bioclose remembrance plays for constantlyyone else. They concluded for this controvert that some apparent designs enact this obligation, and that some of our apprehensive regularityes surmount the skiparies of husk and skull (Clark 2008). The HEC has been combined criticized by Adams and Aizawa (2001) defenders of “brainbound” or “organismbound” arrival to cognition.

Clark and Chalmers, (1998) suppress their discussion by pointing out to what ultimate the liking stretched, “if someone scarcely constantly takes apt resuscitation apparently regarding their Filofax, for exemplification, their apprehensive provision accomplish be apexamine that of the still n essbook in Otto’s. Neverthescanty if the specific constantly acted apparently regarding themselves, for stance if the specific casually counterparts significant topics after a age ‘I do not distinguish’ then the notice in it counts scanty as divorce of specific faith provision. To-boot if someone is relying on the internet is approvely to miss on multiple counts, unscanty the specific is unusually computer reliant, weak after a age the technology, and trusting, but notice on regular files on the specific computer may qualify” (cited in Clark 2008).

Dartnall, (2005) who controverts for interiorism and its epistemoclose implication that an specific can enact resuscitations intangiblely that someone could typically propel out in the cosmos-people. These are naturally achieved on secret analogues of apparent gist, which instrument that there is a leakage in twain ways such as from cosmos-mob to liking, from liking to cosmos-people. This analogy discussion has epistemoclose inference; if the specific can effect an tentative solution in the cosmos-mob using a proceeding, then that proceeding accomplish to-boot manage to tentative solution when carried out in the culmination. For exemplification if a peculiar strides into a space and sees a divorceially completed jigsaw intricacy on the consultation, looks at the intricacy and leaves the space. The peculiar then intangiblely exertions one of the lots and discovers where it fits into the intricacy. They own discovered colossus new, where the lot fits in the jigsaw intricacy, but how has the peculiar done this? Not by straightobtrusive tentative solution, they did not own the frequented record to the intricacy when they exertion-outd it, or if they susceptibility own bear-in-recollection it when they stride into the space, consequently they did not distinguish where it facile when they were in the space and Shepard & Metzler, (1971) to-boot in patronage of this exertion to-boot is harmonious after a age Clark (2010) announcement.

A sum of studies own highlighted that our liking stretchs into the cosmos-mob in patronage of Clark and Chalmers (1998); Clark (2010); Kosslyn (2006); Zhang and Patel (2006), (Baddeley, 1986; Smith and Jonides, 1997) (cited in Kosslyn 2006). In union, Kosslyn controverts that “you” are not pausericted to what’s in your culmination, but to-boot includes things encircling you, including other mob”. Consequently, the wilful becomes reserved aggravate other mob who command as desire engagement gregarious prosthetic devices, adduced in (Kosslyn 2006).

Rupert (2004) plain a methodology for the hypotopic of stretched cognition (HEC) which he designated hypotopic of embedded cognition (HEMC), they are two opposed holds on apprehensive machination and their combination and their position in apprehensive regularitying. HEC could aggravate or scanty corcounterpart to the estimatepoint implemented by Clark (2008) those apprehensive regularityes fin-event stretchs into the environment, age the oral HEMC persists that apprehensive organism is skip. According to the HEMC rely on apprehensive regularityes, instead of entity constituted by the apparent instrument and manoeuvre for cognition to occur apparently the apparent component entity a fdeveloped divorce of the apprehensive regularity. Rupert (2010) opposes Clark (2010), but does not easily exclude the HEC. Thus, the HEMC has prefer tentative patronage and picturesque desert than HEC (cited in Dahlback, Stjernberg, Kristansson and Skagerlund, 2010).

A fresh consider by Dahlback et al (2010), reviews the hypotopic of the stretched liking and in dispose for them to patronage Clark and Chalmers (1998), they conducted an tentative consider. They plain a restriction of what apprehensive regularityes are and how to scrutinize apprehensive provisions, for exemplification how apparent remembrance patronage is in-event used in old mob’s constantlyyday activity. The divorceicipants were four old mob after a age tempered remembrance impairments and were diagnosed after a age Alzheimer’s complaint, and some after a age a contrive of dementia. It was behold that one of the women kept the fitted ductile obscures for the antidote she used and clipped it on her kitchen consultation. The dowager provisionatic that the obscure is a way of reminding her that a abode healthcare practitioner as visited her as she accomplish not bear-in-mind. Dahlback, et al. (2010), keen out that the ductile enclose is divorce of the dowager’s remembrance provision from an locomotive interior regularity, gone an already corpoexistent representative arteevent is put to use to amend her remembrance, consequently they is no demand to educe a representative arteevent to amend the dowager’s interior command any aggravate. Age Clark and Chalmers say that the liking can stretch into the cosmos-mob through locomotive apparentism, that if regularity counts as apprehensive when carried out in the culmination, then it could be to-boot counted as apprehensive when someone uses design as apparent remembrance via a still n essbook. B’s still n ess were on the insidely of her door, for her not to unreserved the door for strangers, exact apexamine Otto, but Otto carries her own constantlyy were she goes.

C uses a shopping register, consequently she forgets things all the age, age F has an provision at podiatrist, which she has written and posted on her fridge, she then rewrites the still n ess and the notice has been partial up.

Dahlback, et al. (2010), Clark and Chalmer’s (1998), the ingenuity of Otto is not as straightobtrusive as they may purpose in existent activity. Hence apparent remembrance patronage in this treatment is of topic on how notice finds its way into the apparent remembrance after a age divorceicipant F’s remembrance patronage commands. Dahlback et al (2010) concluded that stretched liking hypotopic of Clark and Chalmers had been controvertd in self-containedness, for exemplification the hypotopic was not looked at in a range speculative frameexertion exclusive all medley of cognition. In union, the tentative contend has been contempt be entity poor to a few paradigms. Consequently, they patronageed Clark and Chalmers, but incomplete resource speculative frameexertion that Activity System could be used to irradiate some wholes brought up in the contend.

Activity System cognition is primitive and pre-eminent organism centered and biologically indisputtalented in stances resource from Clark and Chalmers, (1998). Hutchins (1995) controvertd that cognition is culturally and gregariously regularityed. The Activity System which is moderate from Vygotsky’s (1978) cultural unromantic psychology, that the anthropological liking is essentially associated to the interresuscitation linked to the cosmos-mob and the anthropological entity. According to the Activity Theory, culture may not barely be apparent which susceptibility own command aggravate the anthropological liking, instead is an underlying unresisting command that is an component of the extraordinarily composition of the liking. This decision is harmonious after a age Clark’s (2010) topic, plain though they own a opposed effect. Vygotsky (1978) is to-boot contendd Clark and Chalmers (1998) topic, stating that the anthropological liking is gregarious in kind; that mob are shaped by their phraseology, how they are construed and by their culture as polite, to-boot that anthropological entitys subsist in a gregarious and communal cosmos-people.

Although they has been critics such as Adams and Aizawa (2001) claiming that there susceptibility be a sharp variety betwixt a existent stretched apprehensive regularity where some apparent artievent in the cosmos-mob is component of an developed apprehensive regularity and regularity that enjoin some regularity.

They ask Clark a topic: Why did the pencil purpose that 2 + 2 =4? And Clark counterparted consequently it was coupled after a age a mathematician.

According to Adams and Aizawa (2010) in counterpart to Clark’s counterpart they provisionatic that, there were wholes after a age Clark’s stretched liking supposition. They provisionatic that Clark had no correct explication of the apprehensive and the “coupling government misconception”, so they made a system “indication of the apprehensive”, which may polite examine that apprehensive regularityes in event are stretched. Adams and Aizawa (2001) picturesque some artievent pencil and pamphlet, in which they clear-up when using pen and pamphlet and at the similar age as propel out arithmetic which is rather obscure, the specific may not be talented to exertion out the whole when using exact their culmination and that the peculiar demands to ignoring notice onto the pamphlet. They say that the pamphlet and pen merely enjointed a tiny apprehensive regularity or else may be unrivalled. Age Menary (2010) feels that the indication of the apprehensive is too poor.

Adams and Aizawa (2010) intend an explanatory exertion, that cognition is constituted through underlying regularityes that compromise non-moderate satisfied. They present this in two ways, chemistry, and physics and by psychoclose laws. They provisionatic that divorceicular psychotangible laws, apexamine Weber’s law, and psychoclose laws accessible remembrance contriveation and resumption. Consequently they incomplete that the impressiveness of tentative declaration patronages the estimate that, gone an design is of obstructed tentative event, that there are some regularityes that are identifitalented apprehensive, which occured in the brain and cannot peevish from the brain into the apparent cosmos-people.

Clark (2010) controvertd that Adams and Aizawa’s (2010) discussion is not potent plenty, “indication of the cognition”, that cognition should be noticed not by its causes, but by its property, which instrument Clark is arguing for a opposed cognition research which is the coupling government misconception.

Neverthescanty Adams and Aizawa (2010) believe that Clark cannot end interpret the estimate they had that cognition is a fundaintangible regularitying about non-moderate satisfied. As a engagementination their exertion did not summon Clark to harangue the whole of the most received wholes after a age extracranial and transcranial theories of cat's-paw use. According to them, Clark did not present a defense to the coupling government misconception and he gives a insinuate at what he purposes distinguishes the apprehensive from the non apprehensive.

In quittance this disquisition has attached an announcement of and the controverts for the received stretched liking contend and the announcement made by (Clark 2010, p. 18) that “minds apexamine ours can (externally the demand for any radically new techniques, technologies, or interventions) stretch into the cosmos-people”. It is practictalented to say that apparent exactice has professionn an discretion to the pure topic of Clark (2010) estimate of all cognition preface attribute in the culmination. In union, how it can be trained to be of countenance in existent-cosmos-mob whole solving and provision of tasks, hence it provides apprehension into the companionship betwixt anthropological interior and apparent cosmos-peoples and the kind of the liking itself.

Furtheraggravate other researches such as Clark, 2003, Clark and Chalmers, 1998, Dennett, 1996, Donald, 1991, & Hutchins 1995 (cited in Dartnall, 2005) say that, apprehensive regularityes stretch into the cosmos-mob when entitys use pen and pamphlet to exertion colossus out or the use of a computer. These decisions recommend that the announcement made by Clark after a age regard to other lore on stretched cognition has brought new areas to be looked into apexamine the demand of technologies.

Finally, a sum of significant limitations demand to be considered, primitive Adams and Aizawa (2010) (cited in Clark 2008) which were the ones who essayed to controvert what was evil-doing after a age the stretched liking hypotopic and Clark provisionatic that they gravitate scanty to successeasily counteract the discussion for the stretched liking, consequently it seems that constantlyyone agreed after a age Clark, but to-boot bear resource explications. However, Adams and Aizawa (2010) controvertd that Clark was not talented to harangue their system of the indication of the apprehensive, on the other artisan Clark and Chalmers essay to decorations the pervasive coupling government misconception and set out a controverttalented system of what opposediates the apprehensive from the non apprehensive. The announcement made by Clark and Chalmers (1998) has thrown up divers topics in demand of prefer research after a age tentative declaration to patronage the announcement.

Ready to perfect your paper?

Order my Paper How it works
You place an order

To get started, you need to complete an order form on our website. Ask our Support managers for help if you got stuck on one of the steps.

We assign the best writer for you

Our manager will start searching for the writer once you've paid for the order. You will be able to communicate with the writer through our message system.

You review the finished work

When the paper is ready, you will receive notification and will be able to review it. You can ask for a free revision if you want to change anything in it.

You download your order

If you are satisfied with the paper, you can approve the order and download the final version in one of the available file formats.

Have a look at our samples

Expository essay
Paper title: Online Education
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: English 101
Paper Format: MLA format
Sources: 2
Analysis essay
Paper title: Advantages and Disadvantages of Lowering the Voting Age to Thirteen
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: Political sciences
Paper Format: APA
Sources: 1
Argumentative essay
Paper title: Keeping Animals in Zoos Is not Justifiable
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: Ethics
Paper Format: APA
Sources: 5
Cause & effect essay
Paper title: Placing Taxes on Junk Food and Fatty Snacks: Can we tax people healthy?
Academic level: High School
Discipline: Nutrition/Dietary
Paper Format: APA
Sources: 3
Compare & contract essay
Paper title: School Uniforms versus No School Uniforms
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: Education
Paper Format: Harvard
Sources: 3
Critical essay
Paper title: Having Cell Phones in Elementary School
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: Education
Paper Format: MLA
Sources: 3
Definition essay
Paper title: What is Fashion for Modern Teenagers?
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: Urban studies
Paper Format: MLA
Sources: 2
Descriptive essay
Paper title: Hollywood to Bollywood: What makes a movie good?
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 1-2)
Discipline: Film & theater studies
Paper Format: MLA
Sources: 2
Evaluation essay
Paper title: The Impact of Violent Games on Children
Academic level: Undergraduate (years 3-4)
Discipline: Psychology
Paper Format: Chicago
Sources: 2
Narrative essay
Paper title: Animals I Have Loved: What’s wrong with another shaggy dog story?
Academic level: High School
Discipline: Composition
Paper Format: Harvard
Sources: -

Used by over 20,000 students

We value our customers' feedback a great deal, and use it to constantly improve and enhance our services. Read on to discover some thoughts from students just like you!

Trustpilot logo 9.8
5/ 5

Good work!

Quick turnaround of a high quality piece of work. Expensive but in specific situations very valuable.

5/ 5


I was really stuck and this gave me the kick start I needed. Used it as they explained and found it so helpful.

5/ 5


I would definitely recommend any student who is finding it diff to write assignment. I am very pleased with the piece of work

5/ 5

Job Well Done!

Perhaps too good. Certainly gave me a huge learning curve at a shorter space of time. Great for a backbone to work on, then make it your own using your own efforts.

5/ 5


I am always satisfied with the services provided, and what I like the most is the understanding, which had helped a lot.

5/ 5


I am never disappointed with this service and have tried many. I now trust that I will receive a good writer as the service ensures they understand your requirements prior to delivery.

5/ 5


I'm very happy to cooperate with from the beginning of my studying, without their help I wouldn't be here. Thank you!

5/ 5

Thank You!

Excellent and professional service from all involved with all of the time.

Recently written papers

ID Topic / type Discipline / level Pages Delivered
1 2 3

Our core values


We value confidentiality, are you worried that your professor will discover you used buy an essay service? Do not worry, that will never happen. You are anonymous in our services.

Plagiarism Free Paper

We provide only plagiarism free papers. Our writers use similarity index software to ensure that your paper meet academic requirements. All papers delivered are unique.

Strict Deadline

When you give us a deadline to deliver your paper, we deliver on time. We will update you in every stem of the way until the paper is delivered.


Our staffs and writers uphold the highest level of professionalism. We do not request unnecessary information and only communicate when neccesary.

Value for Money

We are committed to providing value for every dollar paid. Our refund policy is clear on ground for which we do a partial or full refund.

24/7 Support

We literally don’t sleep in order to serve you. We have a 24/7 customer support system where you can follow up on your orders.


Ask our team

Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you.

Frequently Asked Buy an Essay Questions

See all
Is your service confidential?

When you place an order with our company, we ask you to provide us with such personal information as your name, phone number, and email address. We need this data to keep you updated on the important things related to your order or account, and never share it with any third parties. We also don’t use your contact details for spamming you.

Please note that our support team may contact you using only the phone number(s) stated on our website, such +1 (248) 599-2414 and/+44 (151) 528-2636. In order to secure our mutual cooperation, please do not communicate with those who introduce themselves as writemyessay support staff and reach you from different phone numbers.

Also, remember that we never ask you to provide your credit card information via phone conversations. You should enter this information only on PayPal or Gate2Shop billing forms when making an online payment on our website. The writemyessay support administrator will send a confirmation letter to your personal order page when your payment is received.

We also use a secure encrypted connection and do not store your private data if we do not need it anymore. For more details about how we ensure your confidentiality, check our Privacy Policy, which completely complies with the GDPR.

We offer original model papers that can be used legally in a number of ways if properly referenced:

  • As a source of arguments or ideas for your own research
  • As a source of additional understanding of the subject
  • Direct citing

Nonetheless, check your college’s/university’s policies, including their definition of plagiarism and paraphrasing before using our services. Make conscious decisions in regards to your education.

How do I order a paper from writemyessay?

We take care not only of your academic success, but also of your experience with us. That’s why we have made the process of placing your order as easy and fast as possible—usually, it takes no more than 2-3 minutes.

Let’s have a closer look at the simple steps you need to go through for submitting your order:

Fill in the order form.

Be sure to include specific instructions regarding your paper and to upload any of the required materials. If you have any questions while specifying your paper’s information, just click on the info sign at the end of every field name and you will see a detailed tip on what exact information is required.

Proceed with the payment.

After you are through with the order form, you will need to make a payment via a preferable system. Right after that, you will be automatically provided with your personal order page where you can track your order’s progress, provide additional requirements, and send messages to your writer or support manager.

A personal writer is assigned to your order.

Our qualified staff will choose the most suitable writer whose skills and experience match your field of study and paper’s details. In case the writer must have any particular software or literature in order to get the assignment done, please do not forget to mention this in your initial instructions.

Your paper is completed and delivered to your personal order page.

When the writer finishes your paper, it is delivered to your personal order page as a PDF document, available for preview only. You will be able to download an editable MS Word version of the order right after you click the “Approve” button in the “Files” tab of your personal order page. If any changes are to be applied to the paper, you are always welcome to request a free revision with a new deadline for the writer (be sure to check more information about this in our revision policy).

You can check how easy the process is by going to the order page and submitting your paper details right now.

Is there a money-back guarantee? If yes, how can I receive a refund?

You can get more details about possible types and terms of refunds on our official money-back guarantee page.

How will I receive a completed paper?

You will get the first version of your paper in a non-editable PDF format within the deadline. You are welcome to check it and inform us if any changes are needed. If everything is okay, and no amendments are necessary, you can approve the order and download the .doc file. If there are any issues you want to change, you can apply for a free revision and the writer will amend the paper according to your instructions.

If there happen to be any problems with downloading your paper, please contact our support team.

What if I’m not satisfied with my order?

If your paper needs some changes, you can apply for a free revision that is available for 7 days after your paper is approved. To use this option, you have a “Revision” button on your personal page.

After the 7-day period, you cannot apply for a free revision, though you still can use a paid revision option. The price of such a revision will differ depending on the number of amendments needed to be done. Please contact our support team to find out how we can help you with the amendments to your paper.

If you think our writer didn’t manage to follow your instructions, and as a result, your paper is of poor quality, please contact us and we will do our best to solve the problem.

If the revisions didn’t give the desired result, you can apply for a refund. Our dispute department will process your inquiry to find out what kind of refund we can give you. To find out more, please visit our money-back guarantee page.

How do I request a refund?

You can’t apply for a refund on certain stages of your order, like when the order is not finished by the writer yet.

When the paper is delivered, the “Refund” button on your personal order page becomes clickable.

On the relevant tab of your personal order page, you will also be able to choose the type of refund you’re demanding and the reason why you applying for it. As soon as you do that, our dispute department will start working on your inquiry. All kinds of refunds concerning the quality or the lateness of your paper should be requested within 14 days from the time the paper was delivered, as in 14 days your paper, will be automatically approved.

Your inquiry should be submitted by clicking the “Refund” button on your personal order page only.